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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_______________________
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ______________ to ______________

Commission File Number:  1-36254
_______________________
Avid Technology, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)
Delaware04-2977748
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
75 Network Drive
BurlingtonMassachusetts01803
  (Address of Principal Executive Offices, Including Zip Code) 

(978) 640-6789
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, $.01 par valueAVIDNasdaq Global Select Market

Securities Registered Pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
_______________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ¨   No x
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes ¨   No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports) and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes x   No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes x   No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, an emerging growth company or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “emerging growth company” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
o
Accelerated Filer
x
Non-accelerated Filer
o
Smaller Reporting Company
  Emerging Growth Company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No x
The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately 301,016,458 based on the closing price of the Common Stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on June 30, 2020.  The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock as of March 5, 2021 was 44,490,187.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
 Document Description 10-K Part 
 Portions of the Registrant’s Proxy Statement for the 2021 Annual Meeting of Stockholders III 




AVID TECHNOLOGY, INC.
FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2020

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 Page
  
   
  
 
   
  
   
  
   
  
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CAUTIONARY NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K, or Form 10-K, filed by Avid Technology, Inc. together with its consolidated subsidiaries, “Avid” or the “Company”, or “we”, “us,” or “our” unless the context indicates otherwise, includes forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. For this purpose, any statements contained in this Form 10-K that relate to future results or events are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements may be identified by use of forward-looking words, such as “anticipate,” “believe,” “confidence,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “feel,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “should,” “seek,” “will,” and “would,” or similar expressions.

Forward-looking statements may involve subjects relating to, among others, the following:
the effects that the COVID-19 pandemic and its related consequences may have on the national and global economy and on our business and operations, revenues, cash flows and profitability, and capital resources;
our ability to successfully implement our strategy, including our cost saving measures and other actions implemented in response to the COVID-19 pandemic;
the anticipated trends and developments in our markets and the success of our products in these markets;
our ability to develop, market, and sell new products and services;
our business strategies and market positioning;
our ability to achieve our goal of expanding our market positions;
our ability to accelerate growth of our Cloud-enabled platform;
anticipated trends relating to our sales, financial condition or results of operations, including our shift to a recurring revenue model and complex enterprise sales with long sales cycles;
the expected timing of recognition of revenue backlog as revenue, and the timing of recognition of revenues from subscription offerings;
our ability to successfully consummate acquisitions, or investment transactions and successfully integrate acquired businesses;
the anticipated performance of our products;

our ability to maintain adequate supplies of products and components, including through sole-source supply arrangements;
plans regarding repatriation of foreign earnings;
the outcome, impact, costs, and expenses of pending litigation or any new litigation or government inquiries to which we may become subject;
the effect of the continuing worldwide macroeconomic uncertainty on our business and results of operations, including Brexit;
our compliance with covenants contained in the agreements governing our indebtedness;
our ability to service our debt and meet the obligations thereunder;
the effect of seasonal changes in demand for our products and services;
fluctuations in foreign exchange and interest rates;
the risk of restatement of our financial statements;
estimated asset and liability values and amortization of our intangible assets;

our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property rights;
the expected availability of cash to fund our business and our ability to maintain adequate liquidity and capital resources, generally and in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic; and
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worldwide political uncertainty, in particular the risk that the United States may withdraw from or materially modify international trade agreements as discussed further in “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.
Actual results and events in future periods may differ materially from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements in this Form 10-K. There are a number of factors that could cause actual events or results to differ materially from those indicated or implied by forward-looking statements, many of which are beyond our control, including the risk factors discussed in Item 1A of this Form 10-K. The forward-looking statements contained in this Form 10-K represent our estimates only as of the date of this filing and should not be relied upon as representing our estimates as of any subsequent date. While we may elect to update these forward-looking statements in the future, we specifically disclaim any obligation to do so, whether to reflect actual results, changes in assumptions, changes in other factors affecting such forward-looking statements, or otherwise.

The information included under the heading “Stock Performance Graph” in Item 5 of this Form 10-K is “furnished” and not “filed” and shall not be deemed to be “soliciting material” or subject to Regulation 14A, shall not be deemed “filed” for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, nor shall it be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Exchange Act or the Securities Act of 1933, or the Securities Act, except to the extent that we specifically incorporate it by reference.

We own or have rights to trademarks and service marks that we use in connection with the operation of our business. “Avid” is a trademark of Avid Technology, Inc. Other trademarks, logos, and slogans registered or used by us and our subsidiaries in the United States and other countries include, but are not limited to, the following: Avid, Avid NEXIS, AirSpeed, FastServe, MediaCentral, Media Composer, Pro Tools, and Sibelius. Other trademarks appearing in this Form 10-K are the property of their respective owners.
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PART I
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ITEM 1.BUSINESS

OVERVIEW

We develop, market, sell, and support software and integrated solutions for video and audio content creation, management, and distribution. We are a leading technology provider that powers the media and entertainment industry. We do this by providing an open and efficient platform for digital media, along with a comprehensive set of creative software tools and workflow solutions. Our solutions are used in production and post-production facilities; film studios; network, affiliate, independent and cable television stations; recording studios; live-sound performance venues; advertising agencies; government and educational institutions; corporate communications departments; and by independent video and audio creative professionals, as well as aspiring professionals. Projects produced using our tools, platform, and ecosystem include feature films, television programming, live events, news broadcasts, sports productions, commercials, music, video, and other digital media content. With over one million creative users and thousands of enterprise clients relying on our technology platforms and solutions around the world, Avid enables the industry to thrive in today’s connected media and entertainment world.

Our mission is to empower media creators with innovative technology and collaborative tools to entertain, inform, educate, and enlighten the world. Our clients rely on Avid to create prestigious and award-winning feature films, music recordings, television shows, live concerts, sporting events, and news broadcasts. Avid has been honored for technological innovation with 18 Emmy Awards, one Grammy Award, two Oscars, and the first ever America Cinema Editors Technical Excellence Award. In 2018, Avid was named the recipient of the prestigious Philo T. Farnsworth Award by the Television Academy to honor Avid’s 30 years of continuous, transformative technology innovations, including products that have improved and accelerated the editing and post production process for television.

For a discussion of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, see "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Executive Overview - Impact of COVID-19 on Our Business" in Item 7 of this Form 10-K.
CORPORATE STRATEGY

Acceleration of digitization is having a tremendous impact on the media industry and altering the industry value chain. Today’s consumers are empowered to create and consume content on-demand, anywhere, anytime. Organizations in the media industry are under pressure to connect and automate the entire creation-to-consumption workflow, and are facing a number of challenges, including:

Increasing rate of content creation and digitization of media assets - Many organizations are feeling intense pressure to create more and more content, increasingly tailored for audience niches, while also facing greater competition from nimble players. At the same time, access to creative software tools is wider today than ever before, giving more people the ability to tell their stories.

Exponential growth of distribution platforms - The number of distribution platforms continues to expand, and the economic models of new distribution platforms are still evolving. Many organizations need to embrace new opportunities while also maximizing heritage business.

Continued increase in content consumption - There has been a tremendous increase in viewership in the last decade, but it is spread across many outlets and channels. This increase in viewership is dwarfed by an increase in competitive content. In addition, with growing audience fragmentation, compelling content, brand equity, and relevance are even more critical today.

Disparate mix of tools, skills, and workflows - Lack of commonality and a fragmented supplier landscape creates incompatibilities, inhibiting agility, collaboration, sharing, and efficiency.

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Media technology budgets - Today’s economic realities are placing pressure on media technology budgets, while content output must increase exponentially to deliver on the market requirements. Content creators and distributors have to work with essentially flat budgets, which demands more efficient workflows and solutions.

We believe we are well positioned in the media technology industry because we have a differentiated platform strategy (Avid MediaCentral platform described below) and a well-established market position. Our products and solutions allow our customers to (i) create high-quality, engaging, and immersive content, (ii) distribute to more outlets and devices, (iii) maximize and protect the value of media assets, and (iv) create operational and capital efficiency. As a result of our market position across the media industry, we believe we can take advantage of the following opportunities and trends:

Large and growing market poised for transition - Our customers are facing significant disruption and need to make major changes and investments in their business and operational approaches. Our product offerings help them address those challenges.

Deeply entrenched with a market leadership position - We can strategically leverage a significant global customer base that is loyal to our brand across TV, film, music, and media.

Positioned to help the industry navigate disruption - Our unique approach encompasses a common technology platform, leading software applications and integrated solutions with a large and open ecosystem, which we believe differentiates us from our competitors.

Ready to intercept the next emerging opportunity - By leveraging our partnership with Microsoft and our MediaCentral platform, we believe we can lead the media and entertainment industry into the cloud with market-leading Software as a Service, or SaaS, offerings.

Our strategy for connecting creative professionals and media enterprises with audiences in a powerful, efficient, collaborative, and profitable way leverages our Avid MediaCentral platform. This platform is an open, extensible and customizable foundation that streamlines and simplifies content workflows by integrating all Avid or third-party products and services that run on top of it. The platform provides secure and protected access and enables fast and easy creation, delivery, and monetization of content.

We work to ensure that we are meeting customer needs, staying ahead of industry trends, and investing in the right areas through a close and interactive relationship with our customer base. The Avid Customer Association was established to be an innovative and influential media technology community. It represents thousands of organizations and over 30,000 professionals from all levels of the industry including inspirational and award-winning thought leaders, innovators, and storytellers. The Avid Customer Association fosters collaboration between Avid, its customers, and other industry colleagues to help shape our product offerings and provide a means to shape our industry together.

A key element of our strategy is our transition to a recurring revenue-based model through a combination of subscription offerings and long-term agreements. We started offering subscription licensing options for some of our products and solutions in 2014 and by the end of 2020 had approximately 296,000 paid subscriptions. These licensing options offer choices in pricing and deployment to suit our customers’ needs. Our subscription offerings to date have primarily been sold to creative professionals, though we expect to increase subscription sales to media enterprises going forward as we expand offerings and move through customer upgrade cycles, which we expect will further increase recurring revenue on a longer-term basis. Our long-term agreements are comprised of multi-year agreements with large media enterprise customers to provide specified products and services, including SaaS offerings, and channel partners and resellers to purchase minimum amounts of products and service over a specified period of time.

Another key aspect of our strategy has been to implement programs to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs. We are making significant changes in business operations to better support the company’s strategy and overall performance. We are optimizing our go-to-market strategy, simplifying it to address specific customer markets and help maximize our commercial success. We expect this will improve our effectiveness, increase efficiency, and drive growth in our pipeline and ultimately revenue.

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CUSTOMER MARKETS

We provide our solutions to the following markets:

Media Enterprises.  This market consists of broadcast, government, sports, and other organizations that acquire, create, process, and/or distribute audio and video content to a large audience for communication, entertainment, analysis, and/or forensic purposes. Customers in this market rely on workflows that span content acquisition, creation, editing, distribution, sales, and redistribution and utilize all content distribution platforms, including web, mobile, internet protocol television, cable, satellite, on-air, and various other proprietary platforms. Our expertise also allows us to provide customers in this market with a range of professional and consulting services. We sell into this market through our direct sales force and resellers.

Creative Professionals.  This market is made up of individual artists and small entities that create audio and video media as a paid service but do not currently distribute media to end consumers on a large scale. This market spans a wide-ranging target audience that includes: independent video editors; facilities and filmmakers that produce video media as a business but are not broadcasters; professional sound designers, editors, and mixers and facilities that specialize in the creation of audio for picture; songwriters, musicians, producers, film composers, and engineers who compose and record music professionally; technicians, engineers, rental companies, and facilities that present, record, and broadcast audio and video for live performances; and students and teachers in career technical education programs in high schools, colleges, universities, and post-secondary vocational schools that prepare students for professional media production careers in the digital workplace. Our expertise also allows us to provide customers in this market with a broad range of professional services. We sell into this market through storefront and on-line retailers, as well as through our direct sales force, resellers, and our webstore.

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

Overview

Avid’s growing product portfolio is rooted in providing open and extensible products that ensure our long-term position with customers. Our software and integrated solutions, as well as our services offerings, address the diverse needs, skills, and sophistication levels of our customers. All of our key products and solutions have been integrated into our MediaCentral Platform, which provides the industry’s most open, integrated, and efficient platform designed for media. In addition, we provide flexible deployment models, licensing options, and commercial structures so our customers can choose how, when, and where to deploy and use our tools.

The standalone software portion of our product portfolio consists of our Creative Software Suite and the Enterprise Software Suite, representing a large high-margin software and maintenance business.

Creative Software Solutions

The Creative Software Suite includes our Media Composer, Pro Tools, and Sibelius tools, as well the Artist Community platform, Avid Link, and the Avid Marketplace, all of which are key components of our cloud-enabled software subscription strategy.

Media Composer

Our award-winning Media Composer product line is used to edit video content, including television programming, commercials, and films. Our cloud-enabled solutions that include Media Composer enable broadcast news, sports, reality television, and film professionals to acquire, access, edit, and finish stories anytime and from everywhere. Leveraging an integrated, yet open, end-to-end architecture, this solution gives contributors the ability to craft stories where and while they are happening and speed them to delivery, while maintaining connectivity with the central production operation. Media Composer also offers resolution flexibility and independence, accelerating high-res, HDR, and 4K workflows. We offer Media Composer through both subscription and perpetual license offerings.

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Pro Tools

Our Pro Tools digital audio workstation software facilitates the audio production process, including music and sound creation, recording, editing, signal processing, integrated surround mixing, and mastering and reference video playback. The Pro Tools platform supports a wide variety of internally developed and third-party software plug-ins and integrated hardware. Pro Tools solutions are offered at a range of price points and are used by professionals in music, film, television, radio, gaming, Internet, and other media production environments. We have recently updated our Pro Tools Hardware portfolio with new offerings including, Avid MTRX Studio and Avid Pro Tools Carbon. Pro Tools Carbon is our next generation music creation hardware platform. We offer Pro Tools software through both subscription and perpetual license offerings.

Sibelius

Our Sibelius product allows users to create, edit, and publish musical scores. It is used by composers, arrangers, and other music professionals. Student versions are also available to assist in the teaching of music composition and score writing. Sibelius music notation software offers sophisticated, yet easy-to-use tools that are proven and trusted by composers, arrangers, publishers, educators, and students alike. We also offer Sibelius | Cloud Sharing, which allows users to view and play scores anywhere from the cloud using current web browsers and mobile devices. We offer Sibelius through both subscription and perpetual license offerings.

Avid Link
Avid Link is a free mobile application for anyone wanting to connect with other artists, producers, mixers, composers, editors, videographers, movie makers, and graphic designers, and to the Avid Marketplace. Available for Mac, Windows, iOS, and Android users, Avid Link is intended to make it easy for users to find, connect, message, and collaborate with audio and video creators, promote their work and skills to a vast network of media professionals, manage and keep their software up to date, and purchase new tools. We believe Avid Link will increase interest and demand for Avid’s suite of product offerings.

Enterprise Software Solutions

Avid’s Enterprise Software Suite is built on the MediaCentral platform along with a suite of applications, modules, and services and is also the foundation of our cloud and SaaS offerings.

MediaCentral

MediaCentral | Cloud UX is Avid’s next-generation media production suite that further extends the Avid MediaCentral platform into the cloud. The MediaCentral platform scales from the simplest to the most sophisticated solutions. Built on a customizable cloud native microservices architecture, MediaCentral platform features a cloud-based user experience that runs on any device, as well as workflow modules for editorial, production, news, graphics, and asset management. It also features applications to enhance and scale any of those modules, and a wide array of media services and partner connectors. Every user is connected in a completely integrated workflow environment with a user-friendly interface, and gains a unified view into all their media with flexible deployment options for on premises, hybrid, or cloud (public/private) environments.

As part of the Avid MediaCentral platform, we also offer an Editorial Management module for smaller creative teams that provides the same robust media management capabilities used by the largest media enterprises in the industry. Integrated within Media Composer via a panel, Editorial Management connects directly to Avid NEXIS storage to provide easy access to media with hyper-search functionality. Editorial Management also extends collaboration capabilities for the assistant editor in an easy to use web interface by allowing Media Composer bin creation, logging, and search capabilities, greatly expanding the efficiency of creative teams.

SaaS Solutions

We have a strategic partnership with Microsoft to deliver Azure certified solutions to support end-to-end hybrid and cloud deployments of news workflows. Our partnership includes developing virtualized versions of many of our product offerings, allowing them to run in a private cloud, public cloud, or in hybrid deployments. This enables customers to migrate to more traditional IT infrastructures leveraging IP technology to integrate disparate systems within a post production and broadcast
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environment. We believe our new SaaS and cloud offerings will allow our customers to (i) scale production while lowering costs, (ii) enable anytime access, boosting efficiency and collaboration, and (iii) deliver content quickly and securely to any device, from anywhere. Our first enterprise SaaS offering, Edit on Demand, has been deployed in post production and news environments.

Integrated Solutions

The Integrated Solutions part of our portfolio mainly consists of four common, best-in-class hardware platforms that are combined with tightly integrated software elements to create powerful and differentiated solutions, all of which are designed to complement and enhance our overall software strategy.

Avid NEXIS

Our Avid NEXIS family of shared storage systems are real-time, open solutions that bring the power of shared storage to local, regional, national and multinational broadcasters, and post-production facilities at competitive prices. Customers can improve allocation of creative resources and support changing project needs with an open, shared storage platform that includes file system technology on lower cost hardware, support for third-party applications, and streamlined administration to create more content at an affordable price. Avid NEXIS is the industry’s first and only software-defined storage platform specifically designed for storing and managing media. Avid NEXIS enables fully virtualized storage so media organizations can adjust storage capacity mid-project, without disrupting workflows. Powered by our MediaCentral Platform, Avid NEXIS delivers media storage flexibility, scalability, and control for both Avid-based and third-party workflows. It has been designed to serve small production teams as powerfully as large media enterprises and is built with flexibility to grow with customers through their business stages. In additional to on premise Avid NEXIS workflows, Avid NEXIS Cloud provides on-line, nearline and archive storage tiers and is a key component of our SaaS offerings.

S6

Our S6 product line offers customers a range of complementary control surfaces and consoles, leveraging the open industry standard protocol EUCON (Extended User Control) to provide open solutions that meet the needs of customers ranging from the independent professional to the high-end broadcaster. Our Pro Tools | S6 control surface for sound recording, mixing, and editing was designed as a modular solution that scales to meet both current and future customer requirements. S6 is designed for audio professionals in demanding production environments, delivering the performance needed to complete projects faster while producing high quality mixes. Compact and portable, all control surfaces in the Artist line feature EUCON, allowing hands-on control of the user’s applications. Finally, the free Pro Tools | Control iOS application enables customers to record and mix faster and easier than working with a mouse and keyboard alone.

S1 and S4

In July 2019, we unveiled two new audio control surfaces, the Avid S4 and Avid S1, for professionals at smaller facilities and project studios. Avid S4 brings the power and workflows of Avid’s industry-leading Pro Tools S6 control surface to budget-conscious audio professionals and small- to mid-size music and audio post facilities in an ergonomic and more compact package. The Avid S1 delivers the speed, rich visual feedback, and software integration of Avid’s high-end consoles in a portable, slimline surface that’s an easy fit for any space or budget.

Live Sound

Our VENUE product family and our VENUE | S6L live sound system includes console systems for mixing audio for live sound reinforcement for concerts, theater performances, and other public address events. We offer a range of VENUE systems designed for large performance settings, such as stadium concerts, as well as medium-sized theaters and houses of worship. VENUE systems allow the direct integration of Pro Tools solutions to mix and record live productions of any size.

Maestro

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Our Maestro product line offers customers comprehensive solutions for integrating virtual sets, augmented reality, and video wall control into existing workflows, ideal for any type of production needs in news, sports, entertainment, and in-studio productions, creating greater accessibility, efficiency at scale to enable the delivery of content with graphics faster. Maestro features a core platform that includes a powerful render engine and featured design tool called Maestro | Designer that drives a line-up of applications that are designed to address the specific challenges broadcasters face when automating the integration of statistics and graphics for the creation of an engaging broadcast. By adding graphics capabilities across the entire product line, we enable journalists and producers to add graphics remotely to news stories or enhance any story with innovative stats to drive augmented reality graphics for presenting data in new and compelling ways.

FastServe

Our FastServe video server product line assists broadcasters in making the move to UHD and IP based workflows with a new, modular architecture. The Avid FastServe family integrates with the MediaCentral platform, empowering creative teams to deliver content fast for news, sports, entertainment, and other media productions. Its 10GbE interface offers direct connection to Avid NEXIS storage, enabling real-time ingest, editing, and playout, even while media is being captured. Its modular, future-proof architecture improves efficiency and provides a smooth transition from HD to UHD, and from SDI workflows to video over IP. We also continue to sell and support our on-air server solutions, including AirSpeed 5000 and AirSpeed 5500, which enable broadcasters to automate the ingest and playout of television and news programming. The AirSpeed 5000 and 5500 video servers work with a wide range of applications to improve workflow and provide cost-efficient ingest and play to air capabilities for broadcasters of any size.

I/O and Processing

We offer a number of hardware products that complement our Media Composer and Pro Tools creative solutions, which include I/O devices, interfaces, and audio and video processing equipment.

Customer Support

We offer a variety of service contracts and support plans for our software and integrated solutions, allowing each customer to select the level of technical and operational support that they need to maintain their operational effectiveness. Support contracts typically include the right to the latest software updates, call support, and, in some cases, hardware maintenance. Support contracts for individual products are sold bundled with initial product offerings or as renewals once initial contracts have lapsed. Support contracts are also sold on an enterprise basis where a customer purchases support for all Avid products owned. Our Customer Care team provides customers with a partner committed to giving them help and support when they need it. Our global Customer Care team of industry professionals offers a blend of technology expertise and real-world experience throughout the audio, visual, and entertainment industries.  The team’s mission is to provide timely, informed responses to our customers’ issues and proactive maintenance for our solutions to help our customers maintain high standards of operational effectiveness.

Professional Services

Our Professional Services team delivers workflow design and consulting, program, and project management, system installation and commissioning, custom development, and role-based product level training. The Professional Services team facilitates the engagement with our customers to maximize their investment in technology, increase their operational efficiency, and enable them to reduce deployment risk and implement our solutions.

Learning Services

Our Learning Services team delivers public and private training classes as well as self-paced eLearning content to our customers and alliance partners to ensure that they have the necessary skills and technical competencies to deploy, use, administer, and create Avid solutions. The Learning Services team develops and licenses curriculum content for use by third-party Avid Learning partners to deliver training to customers, users, and alliance partners. The Learning Services team includes the Avid Certification program which validates the skills and competency of Avid users, administrators, instructors, support representatives, and developers.
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COMPETITION

The markets in which we serve our customers are highly competitive and subject to rapid change and declining average selling prices. The competitive landscape is fragmented with a large number of companies providing various types of products and services in different markets and geographic areas. We provide integrated solutions that compete based on total workflow value, features, quality, service, and flexibility of pricing and deployment options. Companies with which we compete in some contexts may also act as our partners in other contexts, such as large enterprise customer environments.

Certain companies that compete with us across some of our products and solutions are listed below by the market relevant to Avid in which they compete predominantly:
Broadcast and Media: ChyronHego Corporation, Dalet S.A., Dell Technologies Inc. (EMC Isilon), EVS Corporation, Grass Valley, Harmonic Inc., Quantum Corporation, Ross Video Limited, and Vizrt Ltd., among others.
Audio and Video Post and Professional: Ableton AG, Adobe Systems Incorporated, Apple Inc., AudioTonix Limited, Blackmagic Design Pty Ltd, PreSonus Audio Electronics, Inc., and Yamaha Corporation, among others.

Some of our principal competitors are substantially larger than we are and have greater financial, technical, marketing, and other resources than us. For a discussion of these and other risks associated with our competitors, see “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.

OPERATIONS

Sales and Services Channels

We market and sell our products and solutions through a combination of direct, indirect, and digital sales channels. Our direct sales channel consists of internal sales representatives serving select customers and markets. Our indirect sales channels include global networks of independent distributors, value-added resellers, system integrators, and retailers. Our digital sales channel is represented by the online Avid Marketplace, and also through the Xchange Market Platform, or XMP, with some of our key partners and distributors.

We have significant international operations with offices in 16 countries and the ability to reach approximately 171 countries through a combination of our direct sales force and resellers. Sales to customers outside the United States accounted for 60%, 63% and 64% of our total net revenues in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Additional information about the geographic breakdown of our revenues and long-lived assets can be found in Note P to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. For additional information about risks associated with our international operations, see “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.

We generally ship our products shortly after the receipt of an order. However, a high percentage of our revenues has historically been generated in the third month of each fiscal quarter and concentrated in the latter part of that month. Orders that may exist at the end of a quarter and have not been shipped are not recognized as revenues in that quarter and are included in revenue backlog.

We provide customer care services directly through regional in-house and contracted support centers and major-market field service representatives. We also provide customer care services indirectly through dealers, value-added resellers, and authorized third-party service providers. Depending on the solution, customers may choose from a variety of support offerings, including telephone and online technical support, on-site assistance, hardware replacement and extended warranty, and software upgrades. In addition to customer care services, we offer a broad array of professional services, including installation, integration, planning and consulting services, and customer training.

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Manufacturing and Suppliers

Our manufacturing operations consist primarily of a network of contract manufacturers around the globe to manufacture many of our products, components and subassemblies, and original equipment manufacturers, or OEMs, from whom we purchase finished assemblies. Our products undergo testing and quality assurance at the final assembly stage. We depend on sole-source suppliers for many key hardware product components and finished goods, including some critical items. Although we have procedures in place to mitigate the risks associated with our sole-sourced suppliers, we cannot be certain that we will be able to obtain sole-sourced components or finished goods from alternative suppliers or that we will be able to do so on commercially reasonable terms without a material impact on our results of operations or financial position. For the risks associated with our use of contractors and sole-source vendors, see “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.

Our contract manufacturers and OEMs manufacture our products at a relatively limited number of facilities located throughout the world and, in most cases, the manufacturing of each of our products is concentrated in one or a few locations. An interruption in manufacturing capabilities at any of these facilities, as a result of equipment failure or other reasons, could reduce, delay, or prevent the production of our products. Because some of our manufacturing or our contract manufacturers’ operations are located outside of the United States, principally in Mexico, those manufacturing operations are also subject to additional challenges and risks associated with international operations. For these and other risks associated with our manufacturing operations, see “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.

Research and Development

We are committed to delivering best-in-class digital media content-creation solutions that are designed for the unique needs, skills and sophistication levels of our target customer markets as well as a generic media platform for the media industry. Having helped establish the digital media technology industry, we are building on a 30-year heritage of innovation and leadership in developing content-creation solutions and platforms. We have research and development, or R&D, operations in seven facilities located in five countries. Our R&D efforts are focused on the development of digital media content-creation, distribution, and monetization tools as well as the media platform. These tools operate primarily on the Mac and on Windows platforms, whereas the media platform primarily operates on Linux platforms. Our R&D efforts also include highly optimized media storage solutions, standards-based media transfer and media asset management tools, and ingest and playout solutions to cover the entire workflow. Our R&D expenditures for 2020, 2019 and 2018 were $57.0 million, $62.3 million and $62.4 million, respectively, which represented 16%, 15% and 15% of our total net revenues, respectively. For the risks associated with our use of partners for R&D projects, see “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.

Our philosophy is to prioritize research and development investments to take advantage of market opportunities based on the following short-term, medium-term, and long-term horizons:
Here & Now - Improve performance, solidify core portfolio, improve margins, and ignite growth.
Emerging - Expand opportunities by pursuing growth areas, extending our product portfolio, and expanding market opportunities.
Transformational - Build for the future, creating unique defensible differentiation in our products and solutions with disruptive and visionary innovation.

Our company-operated R&D operations are located in: Burlington, Massachusetts; Berkeley, California; Munich, Germany; Kaiserslautern, Germany; Kfar Saba, Israel; Szczecin, Poland; and Montreal, Canada. We also partner with a vendor in Kiev, Ukraine for outsourced R&D services.

Intellectual Property

We regard our software and hardware as proprietary and protect our proprietary interests under the laws of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets, as well as through contractual provisions.

We have obtained patents and have registered copyrights, trademarks and service marks in the United States and in many foreign countries. At February 1, 2021, we held 114 U.S. patents, with expiration dates through 2039, and had 11 patent applications pending with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. We have also registered or applied to register various trademarks and service marks in the United States and a number of foreign countries, including Avid, Avid Nexis, AirSpeed,
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FastServe, MediaCentral, Media Composer, Pro Tools, and Sibelius. As a technology company, we regard our patents, copyrights, trademarks, service marks, and trade secrets as being among our most valuable assets, together with the innovative skills, technical competence, and marketing abilities of our personnel.

Our software is licensed to end users pursuant to shrink-wrap, embedded, click-through, or signed license agreements. Our products generally contain features to guard against unauthorized use. Policing unauthorized use of computer software is difficult, and software piracy is a persistent problem for us, as it is for the software industry in general. Although we attempt to protect our intellectual property rights through patents, trademarks, copyrights, licensing arrangements, maintaining certain technology as trade secrets, and other measures, there can be no assurance that any patent, trademark, copyright, or other intellectual property rights owned by us will not be invalidated, circumvented or challenged, that such intellectual property rights will provide competitive advantages to us, or that any of our pending or future patent applications will be issued with the claims, or the scope of the claims, sought by us, if at all. Others may develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technology, duplicate our technology, or design around the patents that we own. In addition, effective patent, copyright, and trade secret protection may be unavailable or limited in countries in which we do business or may do business in the future. For these and other risks associated with the protection of our intellectual property, see “Risk Factors” in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.

HISTORY

Avid was incorporated in Delaware in 1987. We are headquartered in Burlington, Massachusetts, with operations in North America, South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia and Australia.

HUMAN CAPITAL

We view our employees and our culture as key to our success. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 1,362 full-time employees and 263 external contractors located globally in 36 countries. Of these, 36% were located in the United States, Canada, and Latin America, 45% in Europe, Middle East, and Africa, and 19% in Asia-Pacific.

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact lives and businesses around the world. We have taken proactive steps to help protect the health and safety of our employees and maintain business continuity. A vast majority of our office workers continue to telecommute. Within our office areas we have established a number of safety protocols, including face covering and physical distance requirements, enhanced cleaning, encouraging daily self-health checks, and access to virtual primary care physicians. All of the actions above are overseen by Avid’s Crisis Management Team, a multi-functional, multi-discipline team tasked with integrating all aspects of Avid’s COVID-19 response. In addition, we have created a TeamAvid Community, where employees can virtually share communications, collaborate, and engage with each other from their remote locations. This was implemented as a way to keep employees connected throughout the pandemic.

We believe in fostering great leaders. Through our Avid University platform, we have built the opportunity for employees to power their performance with continuous learning and development courses to provide skills and coaching to employees on a variety of topics, such as leading and inspiring teams. We believe this focus helps our employees grow as leaders and well-rounded individuals, and better positions Avid to operate our global business of empowering media creators with innovative technology and collaborative tools to entertain, inform, educate, and enlighten the world. We also offer tuition reimbursement for eligible classes at external education organizations that may not be covered under Avid University.

We also believe a critical component of our success is our company culture. We are focused on creating a company culture of integrity and respect, with the goal of working together to drive our business to be creative, innovative and competitive. To achieve these objectives, we have adopted and regularly communicate to our employees core values of People, Passion, and Performance. We believe in the power of an increasingly diverse, inclusive, and collaborative team and we embrace and leverage the global community of TeamAvid.

To further that focus, Avid has implemented the Global Leadership Team, or GLT. The GLT is comprised of a group of global leaders throughout the organization who are either key stakeholders in our business or an important beacon of our culture. The team meets monthly with the Executive and Senior Management Teams to align on corporate strategy, culture and development.

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AVAILABLE INFORMATION

We make available free of charge on our website, www.avid.com, copies of our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, our Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports as soon as practicable after filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC. Additionally, we will provide paper copies of all of these filings free of charge upon request. Alternatively, these reports can be accessed at the SEC’s Internet website at www.sec.gov. The information contained on our web site shall not be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Exchange Act.


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ITEM 1A.RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below, in addition to the other information included or incorporated by reference in this Form 10-K, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock. If any of the following risks were to actually occur, our business, financial condition or operating results would likely suffer, possibly materially, the trading price of our common stock could decline, and you could lose part or all of your investment. Additional risks and uncertainties that we are unaware of, or that we currently believe are not material, may also become important factors that adversely affect our business.

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

The novel coronavirus, or COVID-19, and actions taken in response to it have adversely affected our business and are likely to continue to adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing worldwide concern and economic disruption, and has led to federal, state and local governments enacting various restrictions in an attempt to limit the spread of the virus. This has included the declaration of states of emergency across the globe, and widespread school and business closings affecting a large number of countries. It has also prompted limitations on social or public gatherings and other social distancing measures, such as office closures, shelter in place orders, working remotely, travel restrictions and quarantines, some of which continue in effect in many cities and countries.

In these challenging and dynamic circumstances, Avid is working to protect its employees and the public, maintain business continuity and sustain its operations. We have taken, and may take in the future, actions as required by government authorities or that we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, manufacturers, and suppliers that diminish our ability to promote our products and services, and deliver required on-site professional services, including on-site support to our customers and users, and that could negatively impact our business and results of operations.

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased economic and demand uncertainty. The outbreak and continued spread of COVID-19, along with restrictions enacted to limit its spread, have caused economic disruptions and slowdowns in many countries. This economic downturn has caused a decline in the media, entertainment, and sports industries which has, in turn, reduced demand for our products and services. These factors are expected to continue to reduce demand for our products and services, possibly significantly, including causing delays in purchasing and projects by our enterprise customers and channel partners. Additionally, the provision of on-site professional service may be impossible for a prolonged period of time, further impacting our business.

The COVID-19 pandemic has also had an adverse impact on our operations and supply chain, and adverse impacts could continue during the pandemic. We could experience interruptions as a result of employees or other key personnel of manufacturers, ours or those of third parties, becoming infected. Such workplace interruptions have also been caused by preventive and precautionary measures that governments and we and other businesses, including our third-party manufacturers, are taking, such as border closures, prolonged quarantines, and other travel restrictions. For example, we do not know if all of our manufacturers will be able to continue producing materials for us or may be shut down. Any of the above circumstances will negatively impact the ability of third parties on which we rely to manufacture our products or their components and our ability to perform critical functions, which could significantly hamper our ability to supply our products to our customers. If we encounter delays or difficulties in the manufacturing process that disrupt our ability to supply our products, we may not be able to satisfy customer demand or we may experience a product stock-out, which would likely have a material adverse effect on our business.

If the pandemic continues and economic conditions worsen, we expect to experience additional adverse impacts on our operations and revenues and our collections of accounts receivable, which adverse impacts may be material. To address our liquidity, we obtained funding under the Paycheck Protection Program, or PPP, and will continue to explore other options, including other programs that may be implemented by the U.S. government in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there can be no assurance that we will obtain any funds from these or future programs. We have also implemented cost reduction measures, including halting all but essential travel spending, reducing discretionary spending, deferring certain investments, and reducing our payroll expenses. Such cost reductions may not be sufficient and additionally may harm our ability to offer, promote, and deliver products and services at the level expected by our customers and partners.

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Further, the continued spread of COVID-19 has led to disruption and volatility in the global capital markets, which may increase the cost of capital and adversely impact access to capital. If we experience further deterioration in demand and our cash flows from operations decrease, we may require additional funding and may not be able to obtain such funding on favorable terms, or at all.

The degree to which COVID-19 impacts our results going forward will depend on future developments, which remain uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of COVID-19, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume. Any of the foregoing factors, or other cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic that are not currently foreseeable, could materially increase our costs, negatively impact our business and damage our results of operations and our liquidity position, possibly to a significant degree.

A natural disaster or catastrophic event may significantly limit our ability to conduct business as normal and harm our business.

Our operations, and the operations of our customers, are vulnerable to interruptions by natural disasters and catastrophic events, including pandemics such as the COVID-19 pandemic discussed in the preceding risk factor. We operate a complex, geographically dispersed business, which includes significant personnel, customers and facilities in California near major earthquake fault lines. We may not be able to protect our company from, and we are predominantly uninsured for, business continuity losses and disruptions caused by such catastrophic events. Disruption or failure of our or our customers’ networks or systems, or injury or damage to either parties’ personnel or physical infrastructure, caused by a natural disaster, public health crisis, terrorism, cyber-attack, act of war, or other catastrophic event may significantly limit our or our customers’ ability to conduct business as normal, including our ability to communicate and transact with customers, suppliers, distributors, and resellers, which may negatively affect our revenues and operating results. Additionally, a natural disaster or catastrophic event could cause us or our customers to suspend all or a portion of operations for a significant period of time, result in a permanent loss of resources, and require the relocation of personnel and material to alternate facilities that may not be available or adequate. Such an event could also cause an indirect economic impact on our customers, which could affect our customers’ purchasing decisions and reduce demand for our products and services. There could also be disruptions to our supply chain as a result of such events. We may also experience disruption to our internal operations if we are forced to restrict employee travel, cancel events with customers or partners, or even close office facilities as a result of such events. Any significant disruption resulting from such events on a large scale or over a prolonged period of time could cause significant delays and disruption to our business until the Company would be able to resume normal business operations or shift to other third-party vendors, negatively affecting our revenue and other financial results. A prolonged disruption of our business could also damage our reputation, particularly among our global news organization customers who are likely to require our solutions and support during such time. Any of these factors could cause a material adverse impact on our financial condition and operating results.

Our success depends in significant part on our ability to offer innovative products and solutions in response to dynamic and rapidly evolving market demand.

To succeed in our market, we must offer innovative products and solutions. Innovation requires that we accurately predict future market trends and customer expectations, and that we quickly adapt our development efforts in response. We must also protect our product roadmap and new product initiatives from leaks that might reduce or eliminate any innovative edge that we seek. Predicting market trends is difficult because our market is dynamic and rapidly evolving. Additionally, given the complex, sophisticated nature of our solutions and our typically lengthy product development cycles, we may not be able to rapidly change our product direction or strategic course. If we are unable to accurately predict market trends or adapt to evolving market conditions, we may be unable to capture customer demand and our market reputation and financial performance will be negatively affected. Even to the extent we make accurate predictions and possess the requisite flexibility to adapt, we may be able to pursue only some of the possible innovations due to limited resources. Our success, therefore, further depends on our ability to identify and focus on the most promising innovations.

Our success also depends on our ability to manage a number of risks associated with new products that we introduce, including timely and successful product launch, market acceptance, and the availability of products in appropriate locations, quantities, and costs to meet demand. There can be no assurance that our efforts will be successful in the near future, or at all, or that our competitors will not take significant market share in similar efforts. If we fail to develop new products and to manage new product introductions and transitions properly, our financial condition and operating results could be harmed.
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Our increased emphasis on a cloud strategy may give rise to risks that could harm our business.

Our cloud strategy requires continued investment in product development and cloud operations, where we have a limited operating history. Our cloud strategy has also led to changes in the way we price and deliver our products. Many of our competitors may have advantages over us due to their larger presence, larger developer network, deeper experience in the cloud-based computing market, and greater sales and marketing resources. It is uncertain whether our cloud strategy will prove successful, or whether we will be able to develop the necessary infrastructure and business models more quickly than our competitors. Our cloud strategy may give rise to a number of risks, including the following:
if new or current customers desire only perpetual licenses, we may not be successful in selling subscriptions;
although we intend to support our perpetual license business, the increased emphasis on a cloud strategy may raise concerns among our installed customer base;
we may be unsuccessful in achieving our target pricing;
our revenues might decline over the short or long term as a result of this strategy;
our relationships with existing partners that resell perpetual licenses may be damaged; and
we may incur costs at a higher than forecasted rate as we enhance and expand our cloud operations.

Certain of our enterprise offerings have long and complex sales cycles, which could result in a loss of customers and lower revenues.

With our transition to leveraging the Avid MediaCentral platform in our sales process, we have experienced longer and more complex sales cycles for some of our enterprise offerings. The length and complexity in these sales cycles are due to a number of factors, including, among other things, the need for our sales representatives to educate customers about the uses and benefits of our products and services, the desire of large and medium size organizations to undertake significant evaluation processes to determine their technology requirements prior to making information technology expenditures, and the need to negotiate large, complex, enterprise-wide contracts. These longer and more complex sales cycles could result in a loss of customers and lower revenues.

We spend substantial time and money on our sales efforts without any assurance that potential customers will ultimately purchase our solutions. As we target our sales efforts at larger enterprise customers, these trends are expected to continue. Our long and complex sales cycle for these products makes it difficult to predict when a given sales cycle will close.

There are a number of financial and accounting risks in our subscription model.

A growing portion of our revenue is subscription-based pursuant to service and subscription agreements that are generally month-to-month or one year in length, and we intend to continue to expand our subscription-based offerings. Although the subscription model is designed to increase the number of customers who purchase our products and services on a recurring basis and create a more predictable revenue stream, there are certain risks inherent in a subscription-based model. These risks include the risk that customers will not renew their subscriptions, risks related to the timing of revenue recognition, and the risk of potential reductions in cash flows. Although many of our service and subscription agreements contain automatic renewal terms, generally, our customers have no obligation to renew their subscriptions for our services after the expiration of their initial subscription period. If customers do renew their subscriptions, these subscriptions may not be renewed on the same terms. Moreover, under certain circumstances, some of our customers have the right to cancel their service agreements prior to the expiration of the terms of their agreements. If our customers do not renew their subscriptions for our services or if they renew on terms less favorable to us, our revenues may decline. Our future growth is also affected by our ability to sell additional features and services to our current customers, which depends on a number of factors, including customers' satisfaction with our products and services, the prices of our offerings, and general economic conditions. If our efforts to cross-sell and upsell to our customers are unsuccessful, the rate at which our business grows may decline.

A portion of the subscription-based revenue we report each quarter results from the recognition of deferred revenue relating to subscription agreements entered into during previous quarters. A decline in new or renewed subscriptions in any period may not be immediately reflected in our reported financial results for that period but may result in a decline in our revenue in future quarters. If we were to experience significant downturns in subscription sales and renewal rates, our reported financial results
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might not reflect such downturns until future periods. Our subscription model could also make it difficult for us to rapidly increase our revenues from subscription-based services through additional sales in any period, as revenue from new customers will be recognized over the applicable subscription term. Further, any increases in sales under our subscription sales model could result in decreased revenues over the short term if these sales are offset by a decline in sales from perpetual license customers. If any of our assumptions about revenue from our new businesses or our addition of a subscription-based model prove incorrect, our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated, estimated, or projected. We may be unable accurately to predict subscription renewal rates and the impact these rates may have on our future revenue and operating results.


We operate in highly fragmented and competitive markets, and our competitors may be able to draw upon a greater depth and breadth of resources than those available to us.

We operate in highly fragmented and competitive markets characterized by pressure to innovate, expand feature sets and functionality, accelerate new product releases, and reduce prices. Markets for certain of our products have limited barriers to entry. Also, the fragmentation in our markets creates an additional risk of consolidation among our competitors, which would result in fewer, more effective competitors. Customers consider many factors when evaluating our products relative to those of our competitors, including innovation, ease of use, price, feature sets, functionality, reliability, performance, reputation, and training and support, and we may not compare favorably against our competitors in all respects. Some of our current and potential competitors have longer operating histories, greater brand recognition, and substantially greater financial, technical, marketing, distribution, and support resources than we do. As a result, our competitors may be able to deliver greater innovation, respond more quickly to new or emerging technologies and changes in market demand, devote more resources to the development, marketing and sale of their products, successfully expand into emerging and other international markets, or price their products more aggressively than we can. If our competitors are more successful than we are in developing products, or in attracting and retaining customers, our financial condition and operating results could be adversely affected.

We obtain certain hardware product components and finished goods under sole-source supply arrangements, and disruptions to these arrangements could jeopardize the manufacturing or distribution of certain of our hardware products.

Although we generally prefer to establish multi-source supply arrangements for our hardware product components and finished goods, multi-source arrangements are not always possible or cost-effective. We consequently depend on sole-source suppliers for many hardware product components and finished goods, including some critical items. We do not generally carry significant inventories of, and may not in all cases have guaranteed supply arrangements for, these sole-sourced items. Our sole-source suppliers may cease, suspend, or otherwise limit production or shipment of our product components, due to, among other things, macroeconomic events, political crises, or natural or environmental disasters or other occurrences, or they may terminate our agreements or adversely modify supply terms or pricing. If any of these events occur, our ability to manufacture, distribute, and service our products would be impaired, and our business could be significantly harmed. We may not be able to obtain sole-sourced components or finished goods, or acceptable substitutes, from alternative suppliers or on commercially reasonable terms. If we are forced to change sole-source suppliers due to a contract termination or other production cessation, it may take a significant amount of time and expenses to obtain substitute suppliers, during which time our inventory may be significantly reduced, which may adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. We may also be required to expend significant development resources to redesign our products to work around the exclusion of any sole-sourced component or accommodate the inclusion of any substitute component. Although we have procedures in place to mitigate the risks associated with our sole-sourced suppliers, we cannot be certain that we will be able to obtain sole-sourced components or finished goods from alternative suppliers or that we will be able to do so on commercially reasonable terms without a material impact on our results of operations or financial position.

We depend on the availability and proper functioning of certain third-party technology that we incorporate into or bundle with our products. Third-party technology may include defects or errors that could adversely affect the performance of our products. If third-party technology becomes unavailable at acceptable prices, we may need to expend considerable resources integrating alternative third-party technology or developing our own substitute technology.

The profit margin for some of our products depends in part on the royalty, license, and purchase fees we pay in connection with third-party technology which we license for incorporation into our bundling with our products. To the extent we add additional third-party technology to our products and we are unable to offset associated costs, our profit margins may decline, and our
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operating results may suffer. In addition to cost implications, third-party technology may include defects or errors that could adversely affect the performance of our products, which may harm our market reputation or adversely affect our product sales. Third-party technology may also include certain open source software code that if used in combination with our own software may jeopardize our intellectual property rights or limit our ability to sell through certain sales channels. If any third-party technology license expires, is terminated, or ceases to be available on commercially reasonable terms, we may be required to expend considerable resources integrating alternative third-party technology or developing our own substitute technology. In the interim, sales of our products may be delayed or suspended, or we may be forced to distribute our products with reduced feature sets or functionality.

Our products may experience defects that could negatively impact our customer relationships, market reputation, and operating results.

Our software products occasionally include coding defects (commonly referred to as “bugs”), which in some cases may interfere with or impair a customer’s ability to operate or use the software. Similarly, our hardware products could include design or manufacturing defects that could cause them to malfunction. The quality control measures we use are not designed or intended to detect and remedy all defects. Any product defects could result in loss of customers or revenues, delays in revenue recognition, increased product returns, damage to our market reputation, and significant warranty or other expense and could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition and operating results.

Lengthy procurement lead times and unpredictable life cycles and customer demand for some of our products may result in significant inventory risks.

With respect to many of our products, particularly our audio products, we must procure component parts and build finished inventory far in advance of product shipments. Certain of these products may have unpredictable life cycles and encounter rapid technological obsolescence as a result of dynamic market conditions. We procure product components and build inventory based upon our forecasts of product life cycle and customer demand. If we are unable to accurately forecast product life cycle and customer demand or unable to manage our inventory levels in response to shifts in customer demand, the result may be insufficient, excess, or obsolete product inventory. Insufficient product inventory may impair our ability to fulfill product orders and negatively affect our revenues, while excess or obsolete inventory may require a write-down on products and components to their net realizable value, which would negatively affect our results of operations.

Our revenues and operating results depend significantly on our third-party reseller and distribution channels. Our failure to effectively manage our distribution channels for our products and services could adversely affect our revenues and gross margins and therefore our profitability.

We distribute many of our products indirectly through third-party resellers and distributors. We also distribute products directly to end-user customers. Successfully managing the interaction of our direct and indirect channel efforts to reach various potential customer industries for our products and services is a complex process. For example, in response to our direct sales strategies or for other business reasons, our current resellers and distributors may from time to time choose to resell our competitors’ products in addition to, or in place of, our products. Moreover, since each distribution method has distinct risks and gross margins, our failure to identify and implement the most advantageous balance in the delivery model for our products and services could adversely affect our revenues and gross margins and therefore our profitability.

Potential acquisitions could be difficult to consummate and integrate into our operations, and they could disrupt our business, dilute stockholder value, or impair our financial results.

As part of our business strategy, from time to time we may seek to grow our business through acquisitions of or investments in new or complementary businesses, technologies, or products that we believe can improve our ability to compete in our existing customer markets or allow us to enter new markets. There are numerous risks associated with acquisitions and investment transactions including, but not limited to, failing to realize anticipated returns on investment, unanticipated costs and liabilities associated with the acquisition, and difficulty assimilating the operations, policies and personnel of the acquired company.

Our revenues and operating results are difficult to predict and may fluctuate from period to period.

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Our results of operations have been, and may continue to, be subject to significant quarterly variation. Our revenues and operating results for any particular quarter may also vary due to a number of factors, including, but not limited to, those enumerated under the section “Cautionary Note on Forward-Looking Statements,appearing elsewhere in this Form 10-K and:

the timing of large or enterprise-wide sales and our ability to recognize revenues from such sales;
demand planning and logistics;
renewal rates under subscription contracts;
reliance on third-party reseller and distribution channels;
disruptions in our supply chain;
changes in operating expenses;
price protections and provisions for inventory obsolescence extended to resellers and distributors;
seasonal factors, such as higher consumer demand at year-end; and
complex accounting rules for revenue recognition.

The occurrence and interaction of these variables may cause our revenues and operating results to fluctuate from period to period. As a result, period-to-period comparisons of our revenues and operating results may not provide an adequate indication of our future performance. We cannot be certain when, or if, our operations will be profitable in future periods.

Our revenue backlog estimates are based on certain assumptions and are subject to unexpected adjustments and cancellations, and backlog orders may not be timely converted to revenues in any particular fiscal period, if at all, or be indicative of our actual operating results for any future period.

Our revenue backlog, as we define it, consists of firm orders received and includes both (i) orders where the customer has paid in advance of our performance obligations being fulfilled, which are reflected as deferred revenues on our balance sheet, and (ii) orders for future product deliveries or services that have not yet been invoiced by us. To the extent that our customers cancel their orders with us, or reduce their requirements during a particular period for any reason, we will not realize revenue or profit from the associated revenue backlog. Even where a project proceeds as scheduled, it is possible that the customer may default and fail to pay amounts owed to us. Material delays, payment defaults, or cancellations could reduce the amount of revenue backlog currently reported, and consequently, could inhibit the conversion of that backlog into revenues. Furthermore, orders included in our revenue backlog may not be profitable. We may experience variances in the realization of our revenue backlog because of project delays or cancellations resulting from external market factors and economic factors beyond our control. In addition, even if we realize all of the revenue from the projects in our revenue backlog, if our expenses associated with these projects are higher than expected, our results of operations and financial condition would be adversely affected.

Risks Related to Our Intellectual Property

Our intellectual property and trade secrets are valuable assets that may be subject to third-party infringement and misappropriation.

As a technology company, our intellectual property and trade secrets are among our most valuable assets. Infringement or misappropriation of these assets can result in lost revenues, and thereby ultimately reduce their value. We rely on a combination of patent, copyright, trademark, and trade secret laws, as well as confidentiality procedures, contractual provisions, and anti-piracy technology in certain of our products to protect our intellectual property and trade secrets. Most of these tools require vigilant monitoring of competitor and other third-party activities and of end-user usage of our products to be effective. These tools may not provide adequate protection in all instances, may be subject to circumvention, or may require a vigilance that in some cases exceeds our capabilities or resources. Additionally, our business model is increasingly focused on software products and, as we offer more software products, our revenues may be more vulnerable to loss through piracy. While we may seek to engage with those potentially infringing our intellectual property to negotiate a license for use, we also may seek legal recourse. As noted in more detail above, the legal regimes of certain foreign jurisdictions in which we operate may not protect our intellectual property or trade secrets to the same extent as do the laws of the United States. If our intellectual property or trade secrets are misappropriated in foreign jurisdictions, we may be without adequate remedies to address these issues. Regardless of jurisdiction, assuming legal protection exists, and infringement or misappropriation is detected, any enforcement action that we may pursue could be costly and time-consuming, the outcome will be uncertain, and the alleged offender in some cases may seek to have our
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intellectual property rights invalidated. If we are unable to protect our intellectual property and trade secrets, our business could be harmed.

Our results could be materially adversely affected if we are accused of, or found to be, infringing third parties’ intellectual property rights.

Because of technological change in our industry, extensive and sometimes uncertain patent coverage, and the rapid issuance of new patents, it is possible that certain of our products or business methods may infringe the patents or other intellectual property rights of third parties. Companies in the technology industry own large numbers of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets and frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. Our technologies may not be able to withstand any third-party claims or rights against their use. We have received claims and have been subject to litigation alleging that we infringe patents owned by third parties, and we may in the future be subject to such claims and litigation. Regardless of the scope or validity of such patents, or the merits of any patent claims by potential or actual litigants, we could incur substantial costs in defending intellectual property claims and litigation, and such claims and litigation could distract management’s attention from normal business operations. In addition, we provide indemnification provisions in agreements with certain customers covering potential claims by third parties of intellectual property infringement. These agreements generally provide that we will indemnify customers for losses incurred in connection with an infringement claim brought by a third party with respect to our products, and we have received claims for such indemnification. The results of any intellectual property litigation to which we are, or may become, a party, or for which we are required to provide indemnification, may require us to:

cease selling or using products or services that incorporate the challenged intellectual property;
make substantial payments for legal fees, settlement payments or other costs or damages;
obtain a license, which may not be available on reasonable terms, to sell or use the relevant technology, which such license could require royalties that would significantly increase our cost of goods sold; or redesign products or services to avoid infringement, where such redesign could involve significant costs and result in delayed and/or reduced sales of the affected products.

Risks Related to Our Liquidity and Financial Condition and Performance

If we are not able to generate and maintain adequate liquidity our ability to operate our business could be adversely affected.

Generating and maintaining adequate liquidity is important to our business operations. We meet our liquidity needs primarily through cash generated by operations, supplemented from time to time with the proceeds of long-term debt and borrowings under our revolving credit facility, or New Credit Facility, governed by the credit agreement, dated January 5, 2021, among us, the lenders party thereto, and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as administrative agent, or the Credit Agreement. We have the ability to borrow up to $70.0 million under the New Credit Facility. We have also undertaken significant cost cutting measures and we may take additional measures to further improve our liquidity. Significant fluctuations in our cash balances could harm our ability to meet our immediate liquidity needs, impair our capacity to react to sudden or unexpected contractions or growth in our business, reduce our ability to withstand a sustained period of economic crisis, and impair our ability to compete with competitors with greater financial resources. In addition, fluctuations in our cash balances could cause us to draw on our New Credit Facility and therefore reduce available funds under the New Credit Facility (see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources” in Item 7 of this Form 10-K). If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flow or our borrowings are not sufficient, our liquidity may significantly decrease, which could have an adverse effect on our business.

Restrictions in the Credit Agreement may limit our activities.

The Credit Agreement contains restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in activities that could otherwise benefit us, including, among other things, limitations on our ability to make investments, incur additional indebtedness, sell assets, pay dividends and make other restricted payments, and create liens. We are also required to comply on an ongoing basis with certain financial covenants, including a maximum total net leverage ratio and a minimum fixed charge coverage ratio. Our ability to comply with these restrictions and covenants in the future is uncertain and could be affected by the levels of our cash flows from
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operations and events or circumstances beyond our control. Failure to comply with any of these restrictions or covenants may result in an event of default under the Credit Agreement, which could permit acceleration of the outstanding term loans and New Credit Facility borrowings under the Credit Agreement and require us to repay such indebtedness before its scheduled due date. Certain events of default under the Credit Agreement may also give rise to a default under other future indebtedness. If an event of default were to occur, we might not have sufficient funds available to make the payments required. If we are unable to repay amounts owed, our lenders may be entitled to foreclose on and sell substantially all of our assets, which secure our borrowings under the Credit Agreement.

Our substantial indebtedness could adversely affect our business, cash flow and results of operations.

As of December 31, 2020, we had $207.7 million of indebtedness, including borrowings under our Financing Agreement, which was terminated in connection with our entry into the Credit Agreement. This substantial level of indebtedness may:

require us to dedicate a greater percentage of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, thereby reducing the availability of cash flow to fund capital expenditures, pursue other acquisitions or investments, and use for general corporate purposes;
increase our vulnerability to general adverse economic conditions, including increases in interest rates with respect to borrowings under the Credit Agreement that bear interest at variable rates or when our indebtedness is being refinanced;
limit our ability to obtain additional financing; and
limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in or challenges relating to our business and industry, creating competitive disadvantages compared to other competitors with lower debt levels and borrowing costs.

We cannot make any assurance that our cash flow from operations, combined with any additional borrowings available to us, will be sufficient to enable us to repay our indebtedness, or to fund other liquidity needs. We may incur additional indebtedness in the future, which could cause these risks to intensify. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows to repay our indebtedness when due or to fund our other liquidity needs, we may be required to adopt one or more alternatives, such as selling assets, restructuring debt, or obtaining additional equity capital on terms that may be onerous or highly dilutive. Our ability to refinance our indebtedness will depend on the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. We may not be able to engage in any of these activities or engage in these activities on desirable terms, which could result in a default on our debt obligations.

Risks Related to Our Stock

Delaware law and our charter documents may impede or discourage a takeover, which could reduce the market price of our common stock.

We are a Delaware corporation, and the anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law impose various impediments to the ability of a third party to acquire control of us, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our existing stockholders. In addition, our board of directors, or a committee thereof, has the power, without stockholder approval, to designate the terms of one or more series of preferred stock and issue shares of preferred stock. The ability of our board of directors to create and issue a new series of preferred stock and certain provisions of Delaware law and our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, could impede a merger, takeover or other business combination involving us, or discourage a potential acquirer from making a tender offer for our common stock, which, under certain circumstances, could reduce the market price of our common stock.

Other Risks Related to our Business

Failure of our information systems or those of third parties or breaches of data security could cause significant harm to our business.

Our systems and processes involve the storage and transmission of proprietary information and sensitive or confidential data, including personal information of employees, customers, and others. In addition, we rely on information systems controlled by third parties. Information system failures, network disruptions, and system and data security breaches, manipulation, destruction, or leakage, whether intentional or accidental, could impair our ability to provide services to our customers or otherwise harm our ability to conduct our business. Any such failures, disruptions or breaches could also impede the development, manufacture or
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shipment of products, interrupt or delay processing of transactions and reporting financial results, result in theft or misuse of our intellectual property or other assets, or result in the unintentional disclosure of personal, proprietary, sensitive, or confidential information of employees, customers, and others. Our development and use of the Avid MediaCentral Platform, public and private marketplaces, cloud-based offerings, as well as our evolution toward an enterprise subscription model that requires us to host increasing amounts of customer data, increases the risk that our and our customers’ data and financial and proprietary information could be more susceptible to such failures and data breaches. In addition, the need for substantial numbers of our employees to work remotely, such as due to the COVID-19 pandemic, could create additional data security risks.

Information system failures or unauthorized access could be caused by our failure to adequately maintain and enhance our systems and networks, external theft or attack, misconduct by our employees, contractors, vendors, or external bad actors, or many other causes such as power failures, earthquakes, fire, or other natural disasters. Cyber threats are constantly evolving, increasing the difficulty of detecting and successfully defending against them. We may have no current capability to detect certain vulnerabilities, which may allow them to persist in the environment over long periods of time. Cyber threats can have cascading impacts that unfold with increasing speed across our internal networks and systems and those of our partners and customers.

Any information system failures or unauthorized access to our network or systems could expose us, our customers, or the individuals affected to a risk of loss or misuse of this information, resulting in litigation and potential liability for us. In addition, we could incur substantial remediation costs, including costs associated with repairing our information systems, implementing further data protection measures, engaging third-party experts and consultants, and increased insurance premiums. In addition, significant or repeated reductions in the performance, reliability, security, or availability of our information systems and network infrastructure could significantly harm our brand and reputation and ability to attract and retain existing and potential users, customers, advertisers, and content providers.

Our international operations expose us to legal, regulatory and other risks.

We derive more than half of our revenues from customers outside of the United States, and we rely on foreign contractors for the supply and manufacture of many of our products. Sales to customers outside the United States accounted for 60%, 63% and 64% of our total net revenues in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively. We also conduct significant research and development activities overseas, including through third-party development vendors. For example, a portion of our research and development is outsourced to contractors operating in Kiev, Ukraine, we have customer support activities in the Philippines, and we have operations in Poland and Israel.

Our international operations expose us to a variety of risks, including:
the financial and administrative burdens associated with environmental, tax, labor and employment, and export laws, as well as other business regulations, in foreign jurisdictions, including high compliance costs, inconsistencies among jurisdictions, and a lack of administrative or judicial interpretative guidance;
reduced or varied protection for intellectual property rights in some countries;
regional economic downturns;
economic, social, and political instability, security concerns, and the risk of war;
fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates;
longer collection cycles for accounts receivable;
difficulties in enforcing contracts;
difficulties in managing and staffing international implementations and operations, and executing our business strategy internationally;
difficulties managing a global labor force;
potentially adverse tax consequences, including the complexities of foreign value added or other tax systems and restrictions on the repatriation of earnings;
increased financial accounting and reporting burdens and complexities;
difficulties in maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls;
costs and delays associated with developing products in multiple languages; and
foreign exchange controls that may prevent or limit our ability to repatriate income earned in foreign markets.

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Additionally, recent legal developments in Europe have created compliance uncertainty regarding certain transfers of personal data from Europe to the United States. For example, the General Data Protection Regulation, or GDPR, which became effective in the European Union, or EU, in 2018, applies to any of our activities conducted from an establishment in the EU or related to products and services that we offer to EU users. The GDPR created a range of new data privacy related compliance obligations, which could cause us to change our business practices, and will significantly increase financial penalties for noncompliance, including possible fines of up to 4% of global annual turnover for the preceding financial year or €20 million (whichever is higher) for the most serious infringements.

We may not be successful in developing, implementing, or maintaining policies and strategies that will be effective in managing the varying risks in each country where we do business. Our failure to manage these risks successfully, including developing appropriate contingency plans for our outsourced research and development work, could harm our international operations, reduce our international sales, and increase our costs, thus adversely affecting our business, operating results, and financial condition.

Fluctuations in foreign exchange rates may result in short-term currency exchange losses and could adversely affect our revenues from foreign markets and our manufacturing costs in the long term.

Our international sales are largely transacted through foreign subsidiaries and generally in the currency of the end-user customers. Consequently, we are exposed to short-term currency exchange risks that may adversely affect our revenues, operating results, and cash flows. The majority of our international sales are transacted in euros. To hedge against the dollar/euro exchange exposure of the resulting forecasted payables, receivables and cash balances, we may enter into foreign currency contracts. The success of our hedging programs depends on the accuracy of our forecasts of transaction activity in foreign currency. To the extent that these forecasts are over- or understated during periods of currency volatility, we may experience currency gains or losses. Our hedging activities, if enacted, may only offset a portion of the adverse financial impact resulting from unfavorable movement in dollar/euro exchange rates, which could adversely affect our financial position or results of operations.

Furthermore, the significance to our business of sales in Europe subjects us to risks associated with long-term changes in the dollar/euro exchange rate. A sustained strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the euro would decrease our expected future U.S. dollar revenues from European sales, and could have a significant adverse effect on our overall profit margins. Continuing uncertainty regarding economic conditions, including the solvency of these countries and the stability of the Eurozone, could lead to significant long-term economic weakness and reduced economic growth in Europe, the occurrence of which, or the potential occurrence of which, could lead to a sustained strengthening of the U.S. dollar against the euro, adversely affecting the profitability of our European operations.

In addition, we source and manufacture many of our products in China and our costs may increase should the renminbi not remain stable with the U.S. dollar. Although the renminbi is pegged against a basket of currencies determined by the People’s Bank of China, the renminbi may appreciate or depreciate significantly in value against the U.S. dollar in the long term. In addition, if China were to permit the renminbi to float to a free market rate of exchange, it is widely anticipated that the renminbi would appreciate significantly in value against U.S. dollar. An increase in the value of the renminbi against the U.S. dollar would have the effect of increasing the labor and production costs of our Chinese manufacturers in U.S. dollar terms, which may result in their passing such costs to us in the form of increased pricing, which would adversely affect our profit margins if we could not pass those price increases along to our customers.

Global economic weakness and uncertainty could adversely affect our revenues, gross margins and expenses.

Our business is impacted by global economic conditions, which have been in recent years, and continue to be, volatile. Specifically, our revenues and gross margins depend significantly on global economic conditions and the demand for our products and services in the markets in which we compete. Economic weakness and uncertainty have resulted, and may result in the future, in decreased revenue, gross margin, earnings or growth rates, and difficulty managing inventory levels. Sustained uncertainty about global economic conditions may adversely affect demand for our products and services and could cause demand to differ materially from our expectations as customers curtail or delay spending on our products and services. Economic weakness and uncertainty also make it more difficult for us to make accurate forecasts of revenues, gross margins and expenses.

Our international operations increase the risk that we could violate the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, the U.K. Bribery Act and similar foreign anti-corruption laws.

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We operate in several foreign jurisdictions. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, and similar foreign anti-corruption laws generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from offering, promising, authorizing, or making payments to foreign officials for the purpose of influencing any act or decision of such official in his or her official capacity, inducing the official to do any act in violation of his or her lawful duty, or to secure any improper advantage in obtaining or retaining business. Recent years have seen a substantial increase in the global enforcement of anti-corruption laws, with more frequent voluntary self-disclosures by companies, aggressive investigations and enforcement proceedings by both the U.S. Department of Justice and the SEC resulting in record fines and penalties, increased enforcement activity by non-U.S. regulators, and increases in criminal and civil proceedings brought against companies and individuals.

We operate in a number of countries that are recognized as having governmental corruption problems to some degree and where local customs and practices may not foster strict compliance with anti-corruption laws, including China. Our continued operation and expansion outside the United States could increase the risk of such violations in the future. Although we have policies that mandate compliance with these anti-corruption laws and require training, we cannot assure you that these policies and procedures will protect us from unauthorized reckless or criminal acts committed by our employees or agents. In the event that we believe or have reason to believe that our employees or agents have or may have violated applicable anti-corruption laws, including the FCPA, we may be required to investigate or have outside counsel investigate the relevant facts and circumstances, which can be expensive and require significant time and attention from senior management. Violations of these laws may result in significant criminal or civil sanctions, which could disrupt our business and result in a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, results of operations, or financial condition.

We rely to a significant extent on manufacturing and hardware development vendors with operations in foreign jurisdictions. This may reduce our control over the manufacturing activities, create uncertainty with respect to intended cost savings and expose our proprietary assets to greater risk of misappropriation. Changes to these vendor relationships may result in delays or disruptions that could harm our business.

We rely to a significant extent on vendors for the development and manufacture of certain of our hardware products, primarily in Mexico. These relationships provide us with more flexible resource capabilities, access to global talent, and cost savings, but also expose us to risks that may not exist or may be less pronounced with respect to our internal operations. We are able to exercise only limited oversight of our contractors, including with respect to their engineering and manufacturing processes, resource allocations, delivery schedules, security procedures, and quality control. Language and cultural, and time zone differences complicate effective management of contractors that are located abroad. Additionally, competition for talent in certain locations may lead to high turnover rates that disrupt development or manufacturing continuity. The manufacturers we use also manufacture products for other companies, including our competitors. Our contractors could choose to prioritize capacity for other users, increase the prices they charge us or reduce or eliminate deliveries to us, which could have a material adverse effect on our business. Pricing terms offered by contractors may be highly variable over time reflecting, among other things, order volume, local inflation, and exchange rates. Some of our contractor relationships are based on contract, while others operate on a purchase order basis, where we do not have the benefit of written protections with respect to pricing or other critical terms.

Many of our contractors require access to our intellectual property and our confidential and proprietary information to perform their services. Protection of these assets in certain non-U.S. jurisdictions may be less robust than in the United States. We must rely on policies and procedures we have instituted with our contractors and certain confidentiality and contractual provisions in our written agreements, to the extent they exist, for protection. These safeguards may be inadequate to prevent breaches. If a breach were to occur, available legal or other remedies may be limited or otherwise insufficient to compensate us for any resulting damages.

Furthermore, if one of our international vendors were, for any reason, to cease or experience significant disruptions in its operations, among others as a result of political unrest, we might be unable to replace it on a timely basis with a comparably priced provider. We would also have to expend time and resources to train any new development or manufacturing vendor. If any of the vendors were to suffer an interruption in its business, or experience delays, disruptions, or quality control problems in development or manufacturing operations, or if we had to change development or manufacturing vendors, our ability to provide services to our customers would be delayed and our business, operating results and financial condition would be adversely affected.

Our success depends in part on our ability to hire and retain competent and skilled management and technical, sales, and other personnel.

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We are dependent on the continued service and performance of our management team and key technical, sales, and other personnel and our success will depend in part on our ability to recruit and retain these employees in a competitive job market. If we fail to recruit and retain, including through competitive compensation, competent and skilled personnel, we may incur increased costs or experience challenges with the execution of our strategic plan. Also, if we fail to maintain an inclusive and discrimination-free workplace, we risk losing employees.

Our competitors may in some instances be able to offer a work environment with higher compensation or more opportunities to work with cutting-edge technology than we can. If we are unable to retain our key personnel or appropriately match skill sets with our needs, we would be required to expend significant time and financial resources to identify and hire new qualified personnel and to transfer significant internal historical knowledge, which might significantly delay or prevent the achievement of our business objectives. Refer to risk factor “The novel coronavirus, or COVID-19, and actions taken in response to it have adversely affected our business and are likely to continue to adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations” for the impact COVID-19 may have on this risk factor.
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ITEM 1B.UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.


ITEM 2.PROPERTIES

We lease approximately 100,000 square feet in Burlington, Massachusetts for our principal corporate and administrative offices, as well as for significant R&D activities. The lease expires in May 2028.

We lease approximately 24,000 square feet in Dublin, Ireland for the final assembly and distribution of our products. We lease approximately 24,000 square feet in the Philippines for our Asia operations, including customer support and administrative functions.

We also lease office space for sales operations and research and development in several other domestic and international locations.

ITEM 3.LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We are involved in legal proceedings from time to time arising from the normal course of business activities, including claims of alleged infringement of intellectual property rights and contractual, commercial, employee relations, product or service performance, or other matters. Our industry is characterized by the existence of a large number of patents and frequent claims and litigation regarding patent and other intellectual property rights.

The outcome of legal proceedings and claims brought against us is subject to significant uncertainty and, as a result, our financial position or results of operations may be negatively affected by the unfavorable resolution of one or more of these proceedings for the period in which a matter is resolved. See Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors – Risks Related to our Intellectual Property - Our results could be materially adversely affected if we are accused of, or found to be, infringing third parties’ intellectual property rights.”

For a discussion of certain other legal matters and contingencies, see the discussion under “Contingencies” in Note K to the financial statements included in herein.

ITEM 4.MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not Applicable.
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PART II

ITEM 5.MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY AND RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol AVID. The approximate number of holders of record of our common stock at March 5, 2021 was 240. This number does not include stockholders for whom shares were held in a “nominee” or “street” name.

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our capital stock, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. Our Credit Agreement restricts our ability to declare and pay dividends in cash on our capital stock under certain circumstances. Our Credit Agreement permits us to pay up to $30.0 million of dividends in cash on our capital stock in any fiscal year if at the time of and immediately after giving effect (including giving effect on a pro forma basis) to such dividend no default or event of default under the Credit Agreement has occurred and is continuing; provided that the $30.0 million cap does not apply if our total net leverage ratio is less than or equal to 2.50 to 1.00 at the time of and immediately after giving effect (including giving effect on a pro forma basis) to such dividend.

Stock Performance Graph

The following graph compares the cumulative stockholder return on our common stock during the period from December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020 with the cumulative return during the period for:
the Nasdaq Composite Index (all companies traded on Nasdaq Capital, Global or Global Select Markets),
the 2019 Avid Peer Group Index, and
the 2020 Avid Peer Group Index (see details following the graph).
This comparison assumes the investment of $100 on December 31, 2015 in our common stock, the Nasdaq Market Index, and the Avid Peer Group Index, and assumes that dividends, if any, were reinvested.

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COMPARISON OF FIVE-YEAR CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
Among Avid Technology, Inc., the Nasdaq Composite Index,
and the Avid Peer Groups
https://cdn.kscope.io/87d7467fbff4ed3ecb8a6b4ed2383313-avid-20201231_g1.jpg

Because our products and services are diverse, we do not believe any single published industry index is appropriate for comparing stockholder return. As a result, we compare our common stock returns to a peer group index, which was composed of Nasdaq traded companies selected to best represent our peers based on various criteria, including industry classification, number of employees, and market capitalization.

The composition of the Avid Peer Group Index is dictated by the peer group selected by the compensation committee of our board of directors for reference in setting executive compensation. The compensation committee seeks generally to include companies with similar product and service offerings to those of Avid while also achieving a balance of smaller and larger sized peer companies in terms of market capitalizations and revenue.

The Avid Peer Group Index for 2020 was composed of: 3D Systems Corporation, A10 Networks Inc., Altair Engineering, Inc., Benefitfocus Inc., Box, Inc., Brightcove Inc., Calamp Corporation, Calix, Inc., Harmonic, Inc., IMAX Corporation, Limelight Networks Inc., Microstrategy, Inc., OneSpan Inc., Progress Software Corporation, Ribbon Communications Inc., Shutterstock, Inc., Telenav Inc., and Zix Corporation.

The Avid Peer Group Index is weighted based on market capitalization.


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ITEM 6.           SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The selected condensed consolidated financial data below should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Financial Information,” included elsewhere in this Form 10-K. The selected condensed consolidated financial data as of December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016 and for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, and 2016 has been derived from our audited consolidated financial statements.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS DATA:
(in thousands, except per share data)
 For the Year Ended December 31,
 
2020 (1)
2019 (1)
2018 (1)
2017 (2)
2016 (2)
Net revenues $360,466 $411,788 $413,282 $419,003 $511,930 
Cost of revenues132,146 162,713 174,118 176,887 179,207 
Gross profit228,320 249,075 239,164 242,116 332,723 
Operating expenses:     
Research and development57,018 62,343 62,379 68,212 81,564 
Marketing and selling87,637 99,944 101,273 106,257 110,338 
General and administrative47,052 53,362 55,230 53,892 61,471 
Amortization of intangible assets— 694 1,450 1,450 2,498 
Restructuring costs, net5,046 629 5,148 7,059 12,837 
Total operating expenses196,753 216,972 225,480 236,870 268,708 
Operating income31,567 32,103 13,684 5,246 64,015 
Interest and other expense, net(19,133)(29,578)(23,087)(18,668)(18,671)
Income (loss) before income taxes12,434 2,525 (9,403)(13,422)45,344 
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes1,372 (5,076)1,271 133 (2,875)
Net income (loss)$11,062 $7,601 $(10,674)$(13,555)$48,219 
Net income (loss) per share – basic
$0.25 $0.18 $(0.26)$(0.33)$1.20 
Net income (loss) per share – diluted$0.25 $0.17 $(0.26)$(0.33)$1.20 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding – basic43,822 42,649 41,662 41,020 40,021 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding – diluted44,878 43,495 41,662 41,020 40,176 
(1) As a result of our adoption of Accounting Standards Codification, or ASC, Topic 606 effective January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method, prior period amounts have not been adjusted to conform with ASC 606 and therefore may not be comparable. See our policy on “Revenue Recognition” in Note B to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

(2) Our revenues and operating results have been affected by the deferral of revenues from customer transactions occurring prior to 2011. On January 1, 2011, we adopted Accounting Standards Update, or ASU, No. 2009-14. Substantially all revenue arrangements prior to January 1, 2011 were generally recognized on a ratable basis over the service period of Implied Maintenance Release PCS. Subsequent to January 1, 2011, product revenues are generally recognized upon delivery and Implied Maintenance Release PCS and other service and support elements are recognized as services are rendered.

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CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET DATA:
(in thousands)
 As of December 31,
 20202019201820172016
Cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities$79,899 $69,085 $56,103 $57,223 $44,948 
Working capital (deficit)25,721 (3,528)8,923 (61,753)(86,931)
Total assets (1)305,138 304,293 265,843 234,684 249,581 
Deferred revenues (current and long-term amounts)99,258 97,901 99,601 194,613 225,684 
Long-term liabilities (1)250,291 247,119 244,831 287,174 281,556 
Total stockholders’ deficit(132,924)(155,085)(166,661)(268,570)(269,911)

(1)     On January 1, 2019, we adopted ASC Topic 842, Leases, or ASC 842, using the modified retrospective transition approach, as provided by ASU No. 2018-11, Leases - Targeted Improvements, or ASU 2018-11. We elected the package of practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance. Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2019 are presented under ASC 842, while prior periods have not been adjusted and continue to be reported in accordance with our historic accounting under previous GAAP. The primary impact of ASC 842 is that substantially all of our leases are recognized on the balance sheet, by recording right-of-use assets and short-term and long-term lease liabilities. The new standard does not have a material impact on our consolidated statement of operations and cash flows, and the effects of applying ASC 842 as a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of January 1, 2019 is immaterial.

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ITEM 7.MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

EXECUTIVE OVERVIEW

Business Overview

We develop, market, sell, and support software and integrated solutions for video and audio content creation, management and distribution. We are a leading technology provider that powers the media and entertainment industry. We do this by providing an open and efficient platform for digital media, along with a comprehensive set of tools and workflow solutions. Our solutions are used in production and post-production facilities; film studios; network, affiliate, independent and cable television stations; recording studios; live-sound performance venues; advertising agencies; government and educational institutions; corporate communications departments; and by independent video and audio creative professionals, as well as aspiring professionals. Projects produced using our tools, platform, and ecosystem include feature films, television programming, live events, news broadcasts, sports productions, commercials, music, video, and other digital media content. With over one million creative users and thousands of enterprise clients relying on our technology platforms and solutions around the world, Avid enables the industry to thrive in today’s connected media and entertainment world.

Our mission is to empower media creators with innovative technology and collaborative tools to entertain, inform, educate, and enlighten the world. Our clients rely on Avid to create prestigious and award-winning feature films, music recordings, television shows, live concerts, sporting events, and news broadcasts. Avid has been honored for technological innovation with 18 Emmy Awards, one Grammy Award, two Oscars, and the first ever America Cinema Editors Technical Excellence Award. In 2018, Avid was named the recipient of the prestigious Philo T. Farnsworth Award by the Television Academy to honor Avid’s 30 years of continuous, transformative technology innovations, including products that have improved and accelerated the editing and post production process for television.

Operations Overview

Our strategy for connecting creative professionals and media enterprises with audiences in a powerful, efficient, collaborative, and profitable way leverages our Avid MediaCentral Platform - the open, extensible, and customizable foundation that streamlines and simplifies content workflows by integrating all Avid or third-party products and services that run on top of it. The platform provides secure and protected access, and enables fast and easy creation, delivery, and monetization of content.

We work to ensure that we are meeting customer needs, staying ahead of industry trends, and investing in the right areas through a close and interactive relationship with our customer base. The Avid Customer Association was established to be an innovative and influential media technology community. It represents thousands of organizations and over 30,000 professionals from all levels of the industry including inspirational and award-winning thought leaders, innovators, and storytellers. The Avid Customer Association fosters collaboration between Avid, its customers, and other industry colleagues to help shape our product offerings and provide a means to shape our industry together.

A key element of our strategy is our transition to a recurring revenue-based model through a combination of subscription offerings and long-term agreements. We started offering subscription licensing options for some of our products and solutions in 2014 and by the end of 2020 had approximately 296,000 paid subscriptions. These licensing options offer choices in pricing and deployment to suit our customers’ needs. Our subscription offerings to date have primarily been sold to creative professionals, though we expect to increase subscription sales to media enterprises going forward as we expand offerings and move through customer upgrade cycles, which we expect will further increase recurring revenue on a longer-term basis. Our long-term agreements are comprised of multi-year agreements with large media enterprise customers to provide specified products and services, including SaaS offerings, and channel partners and resellers to purchase minimum amounts of products and service over a specified period of time.

Another key aspect of our strategy has been to implement programs to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs. We are making significant changes in business operations to better support the company’s strategy and overall performance. We are optimizing our go-to-market strategy, simplifying our strategy to address specific customer markets to help maximize our
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commercial success, which we expect will improve effectiveness, while increasing efficiency and driving growth of our pipeline and ultimately revenue.

A summary of our revenue sources for the year ended December 31, 2020 is as follows (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Subscriptions$72,831 $45,181 
Maintenance124,175 130,443 
Subscriptions and Maintenance197,006 175,624 
Perpetual Licenses27,858 34,932 
Software Licenses and Maintenance224,864 210,556 
Integrated Solutions112,904 172,513 
Professional Services and Training22,698 28,719 
Total Revenue$360,466 $411,788 



Impact of COVID-19 on Our Business

We have operations in numerous countries, which exposes us to risks associated with public health crises such as the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) that was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. COVID-19 adversely impacted our business operations and results of operations for the second, third and fourth quarters of 2020, as described in more detail in Results of Operations below. We expect the evolving COVID-19 pandemic to continue to have an adverse impact on our business and results of operations, as the ongoing pandemic is likely to continue to depress economic activity and reduce the demand for our products and services, as well as disrupt supply chains. Although the duration and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, and resulting economic impacts, remain uncertain, we expect that our business operations and results of operations, will be adversely impacted through 2021, and possibly longer. These economic impacts are the result of, but not limited to:

the postponement or cancellation of film and television productions, major sporting events, and live music events;
delays in purchasing and projects by our enterprise customers and channel partners;
disruption to the supply chain caused by distribution and other logistical issues, including disruptions arising from government restrictions; and
decreased productivity due to travel restrictions, work-from-home policies or shelter-in-place orders.

We are focused on navigating the challenges presented by COVID-19, with a primary focus on preserving our liquidity and managing our cash flows by taking preemptive action to enhance our ability to meet our short-term liquidity needs. To address actual and expected reductions in net revenues, we have reduced our discretionary spending, revisited our investment strategies, and reduced payroll costs, including through temporary employee furloughs and pay cuts. In addition, in May 2020 we received $7.8 million of funding under the U.S. government’s Paycheck Protection Program, or PPP, in the form of a low-interest loan that may be forgiven under certain conditions. We may be required to take additional steps to preserve our liquidity depending on the duration and severity of the pandemic and its impact on our operations and cash flows. For further discussion of these issues, see “Liquidity and Capital Resources.”

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CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES

Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. We regularly reevaluate our estimates and judgments, including those related to the following: revenue recognition and allowances for sales returns and exchanges; stock-based compensation; income tax assets and liabilities; and restructuring charges and accruals. We base our estimates and judgments on historical experience and various other factors we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and the amounts of revenues and expenses that are not readily apparent from other sources. Actual results may differ from these estimates.

We believe the following critical accounting policies most significantly affect the portrayal of our financial condition and involve our most difficult and subjective estimates and judgments.

Revenue Recognition
We enter into contracts with customers that include various combinations of products and services, which are typically capable of being distinct and are accounted for as separate performance obligations. We account for a contract when (i) it has approval and commitment from both parties, (ii) the rights of the parties have been identified, (iii) payment terms have been identified, (iv) the contract has commercial substance, and (v) collectability is probable. We recognize revenue upon transfer of control of promised products or services to customers, which typically occurs upon shipment or delivery depending on the terms of the underlying contracts, in an amount that reflects the consideration we expect to receive in exchange for those products or services.

See Note P to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for disaggregated revenue schedules and further discussion regarding revenue and deferred revenue performance obligations and the timing of revenue recognition.

We often enter into contractual arrangements that have multiple performance obligations, one or more of which may be delivered subsequent to the delivery of other performance obligations. These arrangements may include a combination of products, support, training, and professional services. We allocate the transaction price of the arrangement based on the relative estimated standalone selling price, or SSP, of each distinct performance obligation.

Our process for determining SSP for each performance obligation involves significant management judgment. In determining SSP, we maximize observable inputs and consider a number of data points, including:
• the pricing of standalone sales (in the limited instances where available);
• the pricing established by management when setting prices for deliverables that are intended to be sold on a standalone     basis;
• contractually stated prices for deliverables that are intended to be sold on a standalone basis;
• other pricing factors, such as the geographical region in which the products are sold and expected discounts based on the customer size and type.

Determining SSP for performance obligations which we never sell separately also requires significant judgment. In estimating the SSP in these circumstances, we consider the likely price that would have resulted from established pricing practices had the deliverable been offered separately and the prices a customer would likely be willing to pay.

We only include estimated amounts in the transaction price to the extent it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue recognized will not occur when the uncertainty associated with the variable consideration is resolved. We reduce transaction prices for estimated returns and other allowances that represent variable consideration under ASC 606, which we estimate based on historical return experience and other relevant factors, and record a corresponding refund liability as a component of accrued expenses and other current liabilities. Other forms of contingent revenue or variable consideration are infrequent.

While not a common practice for us, in the event we grant the customer the option to acquire additional products or services in an arrangement, we consider if the option provides a material right to the customer that it would not receive without entering into the contract (e.g., an incremental discount compared to the range of discounts typically given for similar products or services). If a
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material right is deemed to exist, we account for the option as a distinct performance obligation and recognize revenue when those future products or services are transferred or when the option expires.

We also record as revenue all amounts billed to customers for shipping and handling costs and record the actual shipping costs as a component of cost of revenues. Reimbursements received from customers for out-of-pocket expenses are recorded as revenues, with related costs recorded as cost of revenues. We present revenues net of any taxes collected from customers and remitted to government authorities.

Our contracts rarely contain significant financing components as payments from customers are due within a short period from when our performance obligations are satisfied.

We are applying the practical expedient for the deferral of sales commissions and other contract acquisition costs, which are expensed as incurred, because the amortization period would be one year or less.

Stock-Based Compensation

We account for stock-based compensation at fair value. The vesting of stock options and restricted stock awards may be based on time, performance, market conditions, or a combination of time, performance, and market conditions. In the future, we may grant stock awards, options, or other equity-based instruments allowed by our stock-based compensation plans, or a combination thereof, as part of our overall compensation strategy.

We generally use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to estimate the fair value of stock option grants with time-based vesting. The Black-Scholes option pricing model relies on a number of key assumptions to calculate estimated fair values. Our assumed dividend yield of zero is based on the fact that we have never paid cash dividends, we have no present intention to pay cash dividends, and our current credit agreement limits our ability to pay dividends. Our expected stock-price volatility assumption is based on actual historic stock volatility for periods equivalent to the expected term of the award. The assumed risk-free interest rate is the U.S. Treasury security rate with a term equal to the expected life of the option. The assumed expected life is based on company-specific historical experience, considering the exercise behavior of past grants and models the pattern of aggregate exercises. The fair values of restricted stock and restricted stock unit awards with time-based vesting are based on the intrinsic values of the awards at the date of grant as these awards have a purchase price of $0.01 per share.

We have also issued stock option grants or restricted stock unit awards with vesting based on market conditions. Performance-based restricted stock units will vest based on achievement of our relative total shareholder return against the Russell 2000 Index over a three-year period. The fair values and derived service periods for all grants that include vesting based on market conditions are estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. For stock option grants that include vesting based on performance conditions, the fair values are estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. For restricted stock unit awards that include vesting based on performance conditions, the fair values are estimated based on the intrinsic values of the awards at the date of grant as these awards have a purchase price of $0.01 per share.

Income Tax Assets and Liabilities

We record deferred tax assets and liabilities based on the net tax effects of tax credits, operating loss carryforwards, and temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities for financial reporting purposes compared to the amounts used for income tax purposes. We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability with consideration for such factors as historical losses, projected future taxable income, and the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences. A valuation allowance is recorded when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized.

Management believes the remaining deferred tax assets, based largely on the history of U.S. tax losses, warrant a valuation allowance based on the weight of available negative evidence. We also determined that a full valuation allowance is warranted on a portion of our foreign deferred tax assets.

Our assessment of the valuation allowance on our U.S. and foreign deferred tax assets could change in the future based on our levels of pre-tax income and other tax-related adjustments. Reversal of the valuation allowance in whole or in part would result in a non-cash reduction in income tax expense during the period of reversal. To the extent some or all of our valuation allowance is
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reversed, future financial statements would reflect an increase in non-cash income tax expense until such time as our deferred tax assets are fully utilized.

The amount of income taxes we pay is subject to our interpretation of applicable tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we file. We have taken and will continue to take tax positions based on our interpretation of such tax laws. There can be no assurance that a taxing authority will not have a different interpretation of applicable law and assess us with additional taxes. Should we be assessed with additional taxes, it could have a negative impact on our results of operations or financial condition.

We account for uncertainty in income taxes recognized in our financial statements by applying a two-step process to determine the amount of tax provision or benefit to be recognized. First, the tax position must be evaluated to determine the likelihood that it will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities based on the technical merits of the position. If the tax position is deemed more likely than not to be sustained, the tax position is then assessed to determine the amount of provision or benefit to recognize in the financial statements. The amount of provision or benefit that may be recognized is the largest amount that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement. Our provision for income taxes includes the effects of any resulting tax reserves, referred to as unrecognized tax benefits, that are considered appropriate as well as the related net interest and penalties.
Restructuring Charges and Accruals

Based on our policies for the calculation and payment of severance benefits, we account for employee-related restructuring charges as an ongoing benefit arrangement in accordance with ASC Topic 712, Compensation - Nonretirement Postemployment Benefits. Severance-related charges are accrued when it is determined that a liability has been incurred, which is when the expected severance payments are probable and can be reasonably estimated.

Restructuring charges require significant estimates and assumptions, including severance period assumptions. Our estimates involve a number of risks and uncertainties, some of which are beyond our control, including future real estate market conditions and our ability to successfully enter into subleases or termination agreements with terms as favorable as those assumed when arriving at our estimates. We monitor these estimates and assumptions on at least a quarterly basis for changes in circumstances and any corresponding adjustments to the accrual are recorded in our statement of operations in the period when such changes are known.

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following table sets forth certain items from our consolidated statements of operations as a percentage of net revenues for the periods indicated:
 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Net revenues:   
Product revenues39.1 %50.4 %49.6 %
Services revenues60.9 %49.6 %50.4 %
Total net revenues100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of revenues36.7 %39.5 %42.1 %
Gross margin63.3 %60.5 %57.9 %
Operating expenses:   
Research and development15.8 %15.1 %15.1 %
Marketing and selling24.3 %24.3 %24.5 %
General and administrative13.0 %13.0 %13.3 %
Amortization of intangible assets— %0.2 %0.4 %
Restructuring costs, net1.4 %0.1 %1.2 %
Total operating expenses54.5 %52.7 %54.6 %
Operating income8.8 %7.8 %3.3 %
Interest and other expense, net(5.3)%(7.2)%(5.6)%
Income (loss) before income taxes3.5 %0.6 %(2.3)%
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes0.4 %(1.2)%0.3 %
Net income (loss)3.1 %1.8 %(2.6)%

Net Revenues

Our net revenues are derived mainly from sales of video and audio products and solutions for digital media content production, management and distribution, and related professional services and maintenance contracts. We also sell individual licenses for our software products through our webstore. We commonly sell large, complex solutions to our customers that, due to their strategic nature, have long lead times where the timing of order execution and fulfillment can be difficult to predict. In addition, the rapid evolution of the media industry is changing our customers’ needs, businesses, and revenue models, which is influencing their short-term and long-term purchasing decisions. As a result of these factors, the timing and amount of product revenue recognized related to orders for large, complex solutions, as well as the services associated with them, can fluctuate from quarter to quarter and cause significant volatility in our quarterly and annual operating results. See the risk factors discussed in Part I - Item 1A under the heading “Risk Factors” of this Form 10-K.
Net Revenues for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
(dollars in thousands)
2020Change2019
 Net Revenues$%Net Revenues
Video products and solutions$77,232 $(53,993)(41.1)%$131,225 
Audio products and solutions63,530 (12,690)(16.6)%76,220 
   Total products and solutions140,762 (66,683)(32.1)%207,445 
Services219,704 15,361 7.5%204,343 
Total net revenues$360,466 $(51,322)(12.5)%$411,788 
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Net Revenues for the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
(dollars in thousands)
2019Change2018
 Net Revenues$%Net Revenues
Video products and solutions$131,225 $(1,051)(0.8)%$132,276 
Audio products and solutions76,220 3,389 4.7%72,831 
   Total products and solutions207,445 2,338 1.1%205,107 
Services204,343 (3,832)(1.8)%208,175 
Total net revenues$411,788 $(1,494)(0.4)%$413,282 

The following table sets forth the percentage of our net revenues attributable to geographic regions for the periods indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
202020192018
United States40%37%36%
Other Americas7%8%7%
Europe, Middle East and Africa39%39%42%
Asia-Pacific14%16%15%

Video Products and Solutions Revenues

2020 Compared to 2019

Video products and solutions revenues decreased $54.0 million, or 41.1%, for 2020, compared to 2019. The decrease in video revenues was primarily due to customers shifting from perpetual Media Composer licenses to subscription-based licenses. In addition, there was a decrease in revenue due to overall lower sales as a result of COVID-19.

2019 Compared to 2018

Video products and solutions revenues decreased $1.1 million, or 0.8%, for 2019, compared to 2018. The decrease in video revenues was due to customers shifting from perpetual Media Composer licenses to subscription-based licenses.

Audio Products and Solutions Revenues

2020 Compared to 2019

Audio products and solutions revenues decreased $12.7 million, or 16.6%, for 2020, compared to 2019. The decrease in audio revenues was primarily due to lower sales as a result of COVID-19,which negatively impacted revenues for the reasons discussed above under “Executive Overview – Impact of COVID-19 on our Business.”

2019 Compared to 2018

Audio products and solutions revenues increased $3.4 million, or 4.7%, for 2019, compared to 2018. The increase in audio revenues was primarily due to Pro Tools subscription increases and higher Control Surface sales and the S1 and S4 product launches in Q4.

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Services Revenues

2020 Compared to 2019

Services revenues are derived primarily from maintenance contracts, subscription services, as well as professional services and training. The $15.4 million, or 7.5%, increase in services revenues in 2020 was primarily due to strong growth in our subscription services, partially offset by lower professional services revenue due to the negative effects of COVID-19.

2019 Compared to 2018

The $3.8 million, or 1.8%, decrease in services revenues for 2019, compared to 2018, was primarily due to a decline in maintenance from the end of sale of maintenance on certain legacy storage systems at the end of 2018 and a decline in professional services revenue from exiting lower margin work.

Revenue Backlog

At December 31, 2020, we had revenue backlog of approximately $435.5 million, of which approximately $231.3 million is expected to be recognized in the next 12 months, compared to $440.2 million of revenue backlog at December 31, 2019. Revenue backlog, as we define it, consists of firm orders received and includes both (i) orders where the customer has paid in advance of our performance obligations being fulfilled, and (ii) orders for future product deliveries or services that have not yet been invoiced by us. Revenue backlog associated with arrangement consideration paid in advance primarily consists of deferred revenue related to (i) the undelivered portion of annual support contracts and (ii) Implied Maintenance Release PCS performance obligations. Revenue backlog associated with orders for future product deliveries and services where cash has not been received primarily consists of (i) product orders received but not yet shipped, (ii) professional services not yet rendered, and (iii) future years of multi-year support agreements not yet billed. Our definition of backlog includes contractual commitments with customers that specify minimum future purchases, however, since these contractual arrangements do not specify which specific products and services must be purchased to fulfill these commitments, they do not meet the definition of an unfulfilled remaining performance obligation under GAAP.

Orders included in revenue backlog may be reduced, canceled, or deferred by our customers. The expected timing of the recognition of revenue backlog as revenue is based on our current estimates and could change based on a number of factors, including (i) the timing of delivery of products and services, (ii) customer cancellations or change orders, or (iii) changes in the estimated period of time Implied Maintenance Release PCS is provided to customers. As there is no industry standard definition of revenue backlog, our reported revenue backlog may not be comparable with other companies. Revenue backlog as of any particular date should not be relied upon as indicative of our net revenues for any future period.

Cost of Revenues, Gross Profit, and Gross Margin Percentage

Cost of revenues consists primarily of costs associated with:
procurement of components and finished goods;
assembly, testing, and distribution of finished products;
warehousing;
customer support related to maintenance;
royalties for third-party software and hardware included in our products;
amortization of technology; and
providing professional services and training.

Amortization of technology included in cost of revenues represents the amortization of developed technology assets acquired as part of acquisitions and is described further in the Amortization of Intangible Assets section below.
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Costs of Revenues for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
(dollars in thousands)
2020Change2019
 Costs$%Costs
Products$84,222 $(25,577)(23.3)%$109,799 
Services47,924 (1,252)(2.5)%49,176 
Amortization of intangible assets— (3,738)(100.0)%3,738 
  Total cost of revenues132,146 (30,567)(18.8)%162,713 
Gross profit$228,320 $(20,755)(8.3)%$249,075 
Costs of Revenues for the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
(dollars in thousands)
2019Change2018
 Costs$%Costs
Products$109,799 $(959)(0.9)%$110,758 
Services49,176 (6,384)(11.5)%55,560 
Amortization of intangible assets3,738 (4,062)(52.1)%7,800 
  Total costs of revenues162,713 (11,405)(6.6)%174,118 
Gross profit$249,075 $9,911 4.1%$239,164 

Gross Margin Percentage

Gross margin percentage, which is net revenues less costs of revenues divided by net revenues, fluctuates based on factors such as the mix of products sold, the cost and proportion of third-party hardware and software included in the systems sold, the offering of product upgrades, price discounts and other sales-promotion programs, the distribution channels through which products are sold, the timing of new product introductions, sales of aftermarket hardware products such as disk drives, and currency exchange-rate fluctuations. Our total gross margin percentage for 2020, compared to 2019, increased due to a shift toward more higher margin subscription offerings and positive supply chain initiatives.
Gross Margin % for the Years Ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018
 
2020 Gross
Margin %
(Decrease) Increase in
Gross Margin %
2019 Gross
Margin %
Increase in
Gross Margin %
2018 Gross
Margin %
Products40.2%(6.9)%47.1%1.1%46.0%
Services78.2%2.3%75.9%2.6%73.3%
Total Gross Margin63.3%2.8%60.5%2.6%57.9%

2020 Compared to 2019

The products gross margin percentage for 2020 decreased (6.9)% from 2019, due to a change in mix in products sold as well as the decrease in overall revenue due to COVID-19. The services gross margin percentage increased 2.3% from 2019 due to an increase in our high margin subscription business.

2019 Compared to 2018

The products gross margin percentage for 2019 increased to 47.1% from 46.0% for 2018. The change was primarily due to cost savings resulting from our programs to reduce costs and increase operational efficiencies.

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Operating Expenses and Operating Income
Operating Expenses and Operating Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
(dollars in thousands)
2020Change2019
 Expenses$%Expenses
Research and development expenses$57,018 $(5,325)(8.5)%$62,343 
Marketing and selling expenses87,637 (12,307)(12.3)%99,944 
General and administrative expenses47,052 (6,310)(11.8)%53,362 
Amortization of intangible assets— (694)(100.0)%694 
Restructuring costs, net5,046 4,417 702.2%629 
Total operating expenses$196,753 $(20,219)(9.3)%$216,972 
Operating income$31,567 $(536)(1.7)%$32,103 
Operating Expenses and Operating Income for the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
(dollars in thousands)
2019Change2018
 Expenses$%Expenses
Research and development expenses$62,343 $(36)(0.1)%$62,379 
Marketing and selling expenses99,944 (1,329)(1.3)%101,273 
General and administrative expenses53,362 (1,868)(3.4)%55,230 
Amortization of intangible assets694 (756)(52.1)%1,450 
Restructuring costs, net629 (4,519)(87.8)%5,148 
Total operating expenses$216,972 $(8,508)(3.8)%$225,480 
Operating income$32,103 $18,419 134.6%$13,684 

Research and Development Expenses

Research and development, or R&D, expenses include costs associated with the development of new products and the enhancement of existing products, and consist primarily of employee salaries and benefits, facilities costs, depreciation, costs for consulting and temporary employees, and prototype and other development expenses. R&D expenses decreased $5.3 million, or 8.5%, during the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 2019. The table below provides further details regarding the changes in components of R&D expense.
Year-Over-Year Change in R&D Expenses for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
(dollars in thousands)
 
2020 (Decrease)/Increase
From 2019
2019 (Decrease)/Increase
From 2018
 $%$%
Personnel-related$(3,984)(10.1)%$2,745 7.5%
Consulting and outside services(196)(2.2)%(1,477)(14.1)%
Facilities and information technology(368)(3.4)%(1,651)(13.2)%
Computer hardware and supplies(933)(42.3)%267 13.8%
Other expenses156 18.2%82 11.3%
Total research and development expenses decrease$(5,325)(8.5)%$(36)(0.1)%

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2020 Compared to 2019

The decrease in personnel-related expenses for 2020, compared to 2019, was primarily due to a decrease in salary expense as a result of our temporary furloughs and pay cuts and reduced travel expenses as a result of COVID-19. The decrease in all other expense categories for 2020 compared to the same periods in 2019 were primarily due to our initiatives to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs as a response to COVID-19.

2019 Compared to 2018

The decreases in all R&D expense categories, except personnel-related, for 2019, compared to 2018, were primarily the result of our programs to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs. The increase in personnel-related expense was due to an increase in salary expense.

Marketing and Selling Expenses

Marketing and selling expenses consist primarily of employee salaries and benefits for selling, marketing, and pre-sales customer support personnel, commissions, travel expenses, advertising and promotional expenses, web design costs, and facilities costs. Marketing and selling expenses decreased $12.3 million, or 12.3%, during the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 2019. The table below provides further details regarding the changes in components of marketing and selling expense.
Year-Over-Year Change in Marketing and Selling Expenses for Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
(dollars in thousands)
 
2020 (Decrease)/Increase
From 2019
2019 (Decrease)/Increase
From 2018
 $%$%
Foreign-exchange (gains) and losses$(150)(26.9)%$102 22.5%
Personnel-related(6,286)(6.3)%(2,132)(2.1)%
Consulting and outside services(545)(5.1)%1,129 9.5%
Facilities and information technology(1,116)(4.4)%596 2.3%
Advertising and promotions(4,787)(79.6)%(1,530)(20.3)%
Other expenses577 9.1%506 7.1%
Total marketing and selling expenses decrease$(12,307)(12.3)%$(1,329)(1.3)%

2020 Compared to 2019

For the year ended December 31, 2020, net foreign-exchange losses, which are included in marketing and selling expenses, were $0.4 million, compared to losses of $0.6 million for 2019. The foreign-exchange losses result from foreign currency denominated transactions and the revaluation of foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities. The decrease in personnel-related expenses for 2020 compared to 2019 was primarily due to decreases in salary expense as a result of our temporary furloughs and pay cuts and reduced travel expenses as a result of COVID-19. The decrease in all other expense categories for 2020 compared to 2019 were primarily due to our initiatives to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs as a response to COVID-19.

2019 Compared to 2018

For the year ended December 31, 2019, net foreign-exchange losses, which are included in marketing and selling expenses, were $0.6 million, compared to losses of $0.5 million for 2018. The foreign-exchange losses result from foreign currency denominated transactions and the revaluation of foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities. The decrease in personnel-related expenses for 2019 compared to 2018, was primarily due to decreases in incentive-based compensation accrual and decreased travel expenses as a result of our smart spending initiative. The increase in consulting and outside services for 2019 compared to 2018 was primarily the result of increased webstore fees due to higher transactions on our webstore. The decrease in advertising and promotions expenses for 2019 compared to 2018 was primarily the result of our programs to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs.

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General and Administrative Expenses

General and administrative, or G&A, expenses consist primarily of employee salaries and benefits for administrative, executive, finance, and legal personnel, audit, legal, and strategic consulting fees, and insurance, information systems, and facilities costs. Information systems and facilities costs reported within G&A expenses are net of allocations to other expenses categories. G&A expenses decreased $6.3 million, or 11.8%, during the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to 2019. The table below provides further details regarding the changes in components of G&A expense.
Year-Over-Year Change in G&A Expenses for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
(dollars in thousands)
 
2020 (Decrease)/Increase
From 2019
2019 (Decrease)/Increase
From 2018
 $%$%
Consulting and outside services$(5,163)(32.3)%$(1,023)(6.0)%
Personnel-related(816)(3.5)%(1,117)(4.6)%
Facilities and information technology(522)(6.4)%(313)(3.7)%
Other expenses191 3.2%585 10.6%
Total general and administrative expenses decrease$(6,310)(11.8)%$(1,868)(3.4)%

2020 Compared to 2019

The decrease in personnel-related expenses for 2020, compared to 2019, was primarily due to a decrease in salary expense as a result of our temporary furloughs and pay cuts and reduced travel expenses as a result of COVID-19. The decrease in all other expense categories for 2020 compared to the same periods in 2019, were primarily due to our initiatives to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs as a response to COVID-19.

2019 Compared to 2018

The decrease in consulting and outside services expenses for 2019, compared to 2018, was primarily the result of decreases in litigation expenses and contractors costs. The decrease in personnel-related expenses for 2019 compared to 2018 was due to decreases in incentive-based compensation accrual. The decrease in facilities and information technology was primarily the result of our cost efficiency program.

Amortization of Intangible Assets

Intangible assets result from acquisitions and include developed technology, customer-related intangibles, trade names, and other identifiable intangible assets with finite lives. These intangible assets are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of such assets, which are generally two years to 12 years. Amortization of developed technology is recorded within cost of revenues. Amortization of customer-related intangibles, trade names, and other identifiable intangible assets is recorded within operating expenses.

As of June 30, 2019, intangible assets were fully amortized. See Note G, Intangible Assets and Goodwill, to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for further information regarding our identifiable intangible assets.

Restructuring Costs, Net

In February 2016, we committed to a restructuring plan that encompassed a series of measures intended to allow us to more efficiently operate in a leaner, more directed cost structure. These included reductions in our workforce, consolidation of facilities, transfers of certain business processes to lower cost regions, and reductions in other third-party services costs. In October 2020, we committed to a restructuring plan in order to reorganize the business to better support the company’s strategy and overall performance. We have also implemented programs to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs as a result of COVID-19.
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During the year ended December 31, 2020, we recorded $4.9 million of severance costs for 93 positions that were eliminated during 2020.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded $0.6 million of severance costs for 54 positions that were eliminated during 2019.

During the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded $3.6 million of severance costs for 84 positions that were eliminated during 2018 and the first quarter of 2019, $1.1 million of leasehold improvement write-off resulting from the consolidation of our facilities in Burlington, Massachusetts, and $0.1 million of facilities restructuring related adjustments.

Interest and Other Expense, Net

Interest and other expense, net, generally consists of interest income and interest expense.
Interest and Other Income (Expense) for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
(dollars in thousands)
2020Change2019
 Income
(Expense)
$%Income
(Expense)
Interest income$70 $34 94.4%$36 
Interest expense(20,071)6,641 (24.9)%(26,712)
Other income (expense), net868 3,770 (129.9)%(2,902)
Total interest and other expense, net$(19,133)$10,445 (35.3)%$(29,578)
Interest and Other Income (Expense) for the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
(dollars in thousands)
2019Change2018
 Income
(Expense)
$%Income
(Expense)
Interest income$36 $(159)(81.5)%$195 
Interest expense(26,712)(3,238)13.8%(23,474)
Other income (expense), net(2,902)(3,094)(1,611.5)%192 
Total interest and other expense, net$(29,578)$(6,491)28.1%$(23,087)

2020 Compared to 2019

The decrease in interest expense for 2020 compared to 2019 was due to the repayment of our outstanding convertible notes on June 15, 2020 as well as savings on our term loan interest under our credit facility due to the decrease in the LIBOR rate over 2020. See Note Q, Long-Term Debt and Credit Agreement, to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further information.

2019 Compared to 2018

The increase in interest expense for 2019 compared to 2018, was due to the additional $100.0 million term loan we obtained in 2019 and fees related to the refinancing. See Note Q, Long-Term Debt and Credit Agreement, to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further information.

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Provision for (Benefit from) Income Taxes
Provision for (Benefit from) Income Taxes for the Years Ended December 31, 2020 and 2019
(dollars in thousands)
2020Change2019
 Benefit$%Provision
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes$1,372 $6,448 (127.0)%$(5,076)
Provision for Income Taxes for the Years Ended December 31, 2019 and 2018
(dollars in thousands)
2019Change2018
 Provision$%Provision
(Benefit from) provision for income taxes$(5,076)$(6,347)(499.4)%$1,271 

Our effective tax rate, which represents our tax provision as a percentage of income before tax, was 11.0%, (201.0)%, and (13.5)%, respectively, for 2020, 2019, and 2018.

The increase in our 2020 provision was primarily driven by a non-recurring benefit in our 2019 provision. Our 2019 provision included the removal of valuation allowances on some of our foreign net operating loss carryforwards. During the year ended December 31, 2019 we determined that our Irish subsidiary had reached a level of sustained profitability sufficient enough to release a significant portion of the valuation allowance on its net operating loss carryforward. Accordingly, we recorded a $6.0 million benefit related to a valuation allowance against the Irish net operating loss carryforward deferred tax asset. Additionally, during the year ended December 31, 2019 we completed a legal entity reorganization that reduced the number of our German subsidiaries. This reorganization allowed us to remove a valuation allowance on the net operating loss carryforward deferred tax asset of one of the surviving German entities. Accordingly, we recorded a benefit of $1.5 million, which is net of a reserve for a related uncertain tax position. The year over year increase driven by the non-recurring combined benefit was partially offset by a decrease in the provision due to release of a reserve for an uncertain tax position in our Israel subsidiary due to an audit settlement and changes in the jurisdictional mix of earnings.

The decrease in our 2019 provision was driven by the removal of valuation allowances on our Irish and German net operating loss carryforwards, as noted above, which totaled a combined benefit of $7.5 million. The combined benefit was partially offset by an increase in the provision due to changes in the jurisdictional mix of earnings including the now ongoing taxability of our earnings in Ireland and Germany which results in a non-cash tax expense.
We have significant accumulated deferred tax assets including the tax effects of net operating losses and tax credit carryovers. The realization of the net deferred tax assets is dependent upon the generation of sufficient future taxable income in the applicable tax jurisdictions. We regularly review our deferred tax assets for recoverability with consideration for such factors as historical losses, projected future taxable income, the expected timing of the reversals of existing temporary differences, and tax planning strategies. ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes, requires us to record a valuation allowance when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Management believes the remaining deferred tax assets, based largely on the history of U.S. tax losses, warrant a valuation allowance based on the weight of available negative evidence. We have also determined that a full valuation allowance is warranted on a portion of our foreign deferred tax assets.

The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Act, or CARES Act, includes several income tax provisions such as net operating loss, or NOL, carryback and carryforward benefits and other tax deduction benefits. As noted previously, the U.S. deferred tax asset has a full valuation; accordingly, these NOL and other benefit provisions had no impact on our financial statements for the period ended December 31, 2020. The CARES Act accelerates the alternative minimum tax, or AMT, credit refund originally enacted by the Tax Cut and Jobs Act in 2017. As of December 31, 2020, we have received the cash from the IRS associated with this refund receivable which had been recorded as a long-term asset at December 31, 2019.


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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Liquidity and Sources of Cash

Our principal source of liquidity is cash and cash equivalents, which totaled $79.9 million as of December 31, 2020. We have generally funded operations in recent years through the use of existing cash balances, supplemented from time to time with the proceeds of long-term debt and borrowings under our credit facilities.

Our cash requirements vary depending on factors such as the growth of the business, changes in working capital, capital expenditures, and obligations under our cost efficiency program. We expect to operate the business and execute our strategic initiatives principally with funds generated from operations, remaining net proceeds from the term loan borrowings under the Credit Agreement, and draws of up to a maximum of $70.0 million under the Credit Agreement’s revolving credit facility. We anticipate that we will have sufficient internal and external sources of liquidity to fund operations and anticipated working capital and other expected cash needs for at least the next 12 months from the filing of our annual report as well as for the foreseeable future.

One key aspect of our strategy has been to implement programs to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs. We are making significant changes in business operations to better support the company’s strategy and overall performance. We are optimizing our go-to-market strategy, simplifying our strategy to address specific customer markets to help maximize our commercial success, which we expect will improve effectiveness, while increasing efficiency and driving growth of our pipeline and ultimately revenue. We believe these collective efforts will continue to improve our efficiency as an organization, increasing gross margins and overall profitability.

Financing Agreement

On February 26, 2016, we entered into the Financing Agreement , or the Financing Agreement, with the lenders party thereto. Pursuant to the Financing Agreement, the lenders agreed to provide us with (a) a term loan in the aggregate principal amount of $100.0 million, or the Term Loan, and (b) a revolving credit facility of up to a maximum of $5.0 million in borrowings outstanding at any time, or the Credit Facility. On November 9, 2017, we entered into an amendment to the Financing Agreement which increased the aggregate principal amount of the term loan to $115.0 million and increased the commitments under the revolving credit facility to $10.0 million. On May 10, 2018, we entered into a further amendment to the Financing Agreement that extended the maturity of the Financing Agreement to May 2023, and increased the aggregate principal amount of the term loan to $137.7 million and increased the commitments under the revolving credit facility to $22.5 million.

On April 8, 2019, we entered into an amendment to the Financing Agreement. The amendment provided for an additional delayed draw term loan commitment in the aggregate principal amount of $100.0 million, or the Delayed Draw Funds, for the purpose of funding the purchase of a portion of the Notes in a tender offer. On May 2, 2019, we received the Delayed Draw Funds under the Financing Agreement. We used $72.7 million of the Delayed Draw Funds for the purchase of a portion of the Notes, $0.6 million for the Notes interest payment, and $6.0 million for the payment of refinancing fees. On June 18, 2019, we repaid $20.7 million of the Delayed Draw Funds. The $79.3 million Delayed Draw Funds borrowed would have matured on May 10, 2023 under the Financing Agreement.

On May 19, 2020, we entered into an amendment to the Financing Agreement which increased the leverage ratio that the Company was required to maintain such that following the effective date of this amendment, the Company was required to maintain a leverage ratio of no greater than 6.00:1.00 for each of the quarters ending June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020, 5.75:1.00 for each of the quarters ending December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2021, 5.25:1.00 for the quarter ending June 30, 2021, 5.00:1.00 for the quarter ending September 30, 2021, 4.50:1.00 for the quarter ending December 31, 2021, 4.30:1.00 for the quarter ending March 31, 2022, 4.00:1.00 for each of the quarters ending June 30, 2022 and September 30, 2022, and 3.75:1.00 for each of the quarters ending December 31, 2022 and March 31, 2023. The amendment also reset the prepayment premium to 1.5% of the principal amount of the loans prepaid through the end of 2020, 0.5% of the principal amount of the loans prepaid through the end of 2021, and 0.0% thereafter.

Effective with the May 19, 2020 amendment to the Financing Agreement, interest accrued on outstanding borrowings at a rate of either the LIBOR Rate (as defined in the Financing Agreement) plus 6.25% or a Reference Rate (as defined in the Financing
43


Agreement) plus 5.75%, at the option of the Company. Prior to the effective date of such Amendment, the applicable margin with respect to the LIBOR Rate was 6.25% and the applicable margin with respect to the Reference Rate was 5.25%.

Credit Agreement (New Credit Facility)

On January 5, 2021, we entered into the Credit Agreement, or the Credit Agreement, among us, the Lenders party thereto, and JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as the administrative agent, or the Agent. Pursuant to the Credit Agreement, the Lenders agreed to provide us with (a) a term loan in the aggregate principal amount of $180.0 million, or the New Term Loan and (b) a revolving credit facility of up to a maximum of $70.0 million in borrowings outstanding at any time, or the New Credit Facility. We borrowed the full amount of the New Term Loan, or $180.0 million, on the closing date, but did not borrow any amount under the New Credit Facility on the closing date. The borrowings under the New Term Loan and cash on hand were used to repay outstanding borrowings under the Financing Agreement in connection the termination of the Financing Agreement, as described above. Prior to the maturity of the New Credit Facility, any amounts borrowed under the New Credit Facility may be repaid and, subject to the terms and conditions of the Credit Agreement, reborrowed in whole or in part without penalty.

Financial terms and prepayments. Under the Credit Agreement, interest accrues on outstanding borrowings under the New Term Loan and the New Credit Facility at a rate of the Adjusted LIBO Rate, the Adjusted EURIBO Rate or the Alternate Base Rate (each as defined in the Credit Agreement), at the option of the Company, plus a spread of 2.00% to 3.25% for Adjusted LIBO Rate and Adjusted EURIBO Rate loans, with a 0.25% LIBOR floor, and 1.00% to 2.25% for Alternate Base Rate loans, in each case depending on our leverage ratio. In addition, we must pay to the Lenders, on a quarterly basis, a commitment fee at a rate of 0.20% to 0.50%, depending on our leverage ratio, on the average daily amount equal to (1) the total revolving commitments under the New Credit Facility less (2) total amount of the outstanding borrowings under the New Credit Facility during the immediately preceding quarter. During the term of the New Credit Facility, we are entitled to reduce the maximum amounts of the Lenders’ commitments under the New Credit Facility. We may prepay all or any portion of the borrowings under the Credit Agreement prior to the stated maturity, subject to the payment of certain break funding amounts, if applicable. In addition, subject to exceptions we will be required to prepay the Term Loan with proceeds we receive from specified events, including sales of assets, insurance proceeds and condemnation awards and the incurrence of certain indebtedness. The New Term Loan requires quarterly principal payments commencing in March 2021 equal to 5.0% of the original principal amount of the New Term Loan in years 1 and 2, 7.5% of the original principal amount of the New Term Loan in year 3, and 10% of the original principal amount of the New Term Loan in years 4 and 5, with the remaining aggregate principal amount due at maturity.

Collateral and guarantees. We and our subsidiary, Avid Technology Worldwide, Inc., or Avid Worldwide, granted a security interest on substantially all of our assets to secure the obligations of all obligors under the New Term Loan and the New Credit Facility. Avid Worldwide provided a guarantee of all our obligations under the Credit Agreement. Our future subsidiaries (other than certain foreign and immaterial subsidiaries) are also required to become a party to the applicable security agreements and guarantee the obligations under the Credit Agreement.

Representations and restrictive covenants. The Credit Agreement contains representations, warranties and restrictive covenants that are customary for an agreement of this kind, including, for example, covenants that restrict us from incurring additional indebtedness, granting liens, making investments and restricted payments, making acquisitions, entering into swap agreements, paying dividends, making payments of or amending the terms of certain subordinated indebtedness, engaging in sale and leaseback transactions, and engaging in transactions with affiliates.

Events of default. The Credit Agreement contains customary events of default under which our payment obligations may be accelerated. These events of default include, among others, failure to pay amounts payable under the Credit Agreement when due, breach of representations and warranties, failure to perform covenants, a change of control, default or acceleration of material indebtedness, certain judgments and certain impairments to the collateral.

Financial covenants. The Credit Agreement contains two financial covenants. The Company is required to maintain a maximum total net leverage ratio, generally defined as the ratio of (x) consolidated total indebtedness minus liquidity maintained in the United States up to $25 million to (y) consolidated EBITDA, not to exceed 4.00 to 1:00 for the fiscal quarters ending March 31, 2021 through June 30, 2021; 3.75 to 1.00 for the fiscal quarters ending September 30, 2021 through December 31, 2021; 3.50 to 1.00 for the fiscal quarters ending March 31, 2022 through June 30, 2022; 3.25 to 1.00 for the fiscal quarters ending September
44


30, 2022 through December 31, 2022; and 3.00 to 1.00 for fiscal quarters ending on or after March 31, 2023. The Company is also required to maintain a fixed charge coverage ratio not less than 1.20 to 1.00 at the end of each fiscal quarter ending on or after March 31, 2021. The Credit Agreement’s fixed charge coverage ratio is generally defined as the ratio of (x) consolidated EBITDA minus unfinanced capital expenditures, cash tax expense and certain restricted payments to (y) consolidated fixed charges.

Our ability to satisfy the maximum total net leverage covenant and the minimum fixed charge coverage ratio covenant in the future is dependent on our ability to increase bookings and billings above levels experienced over the last 12 months. In recent quarters, we have experienced volatility in bookings and billings resulting from, among other things, (i) our transition towards subscription and recurring revenue streams and the resulting decline in traditional upfront product sales, (ii) dramatic changes in the media industry and the impact it has on our customers, (iii) the impact of new and anticipated product launches and features, (iv) volatility in currency rates, and (v) in the three most recent quarters, the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In the event bookings and billings in future quarters are lower than we currently anticipate, we may be forced to take remedial actions which could include, among other things (and where allowed by the Lenders), (i) further cost reductions, (ii) seeking replacement financing, (iii) raising additional debt or equity funding or (iv) disposing of certain assets or businesses. Such remedial actions, which may not be available on favorable terms or at all, could have a material adverse impact on our business. If we are not in compliance with the maximum total net leverage ratio or the minimum fixed charge coverage ratio and are unable to obtain an amendment or waiver, such noncompliance may result in an event of default under the Credit Agreement, which could permit acceleration of the outstanding indebtedness under the Credit Agreement and require us to repay such indebtedness before the scheduled due date. If an event of default were to occur, we might not have sufficient funds available to make the payments required. If we are unable to repay amounts owed, the Lenders may be entitled to foreclose on and sell substantially all of our assets that secure our borrowings under the Credit Agreement.

2.00% Convertible Senior Notes

On June 15, 2015, we issued $125.0 million aggregate principal amount of our 2.00% Convertible Senior Notes due 2020, or the Notes. In connection with the offering of the Notes, on June 9, 2015, we entered into a capped call derivative transaction with a third party, or the Capped Call.

On April 11, 2019, we announced the commencement of a cash tender offer, or the Offer, for any and all of our outstanding Notes. On May 9, 2019, as of the expiration of the Offer, Notes with an aggregate principal amount of $74.0 million were validly tendered. We accepted for purchase all Notes that were validly tendered at the expiration of the Offer at a purchase price equal to $982.50 per $1,000 principal amount of Notes, and settled the Offer on May 13, 2019 for $72.7 million in cash. We recorded $74.0 million extinguishment of debt, $0.6 million of equity reacquisition, and $2.9 million loss on the extinguishment of debt. In connection with the Offer, the number of options under the Capped Call was reduced to 28,867 to mirror the remaining principal outstanding for the Notes, and an immaterial partial unwind cash payment was received in May 2019.

On June 15, 2020, the maturity date of the Notes, we fully repaid the outstanding principal and unpaid interest on the Notes. In connection with such repayment, the Capped Call was unwound.

Paycheck Protection Program Loan

On May 11, 2020, we received $7.8 million of proceeds in connection with its incurrence of a loan under the Paycheck Protection Program, or PPP. The loan has a fixed interest rate of 1% and matures in two years. Interest payments are deferred for six months. On November 17, 2020 we applied to the SBA for the PPP loan to be forgiven in full. We believe we used the proceeds of the PPP loan for purposes consistent with the PPP. While we currently believe that our use of the loan proceeds will meet the conditions for forgiveness of the loan, we cannot assure that we will be eligible for forgiveness of the loan, in whole or in part. Any PPP loan balance remaining following forgiveness by the SBA will be fully repaid on or before the maturity date of the loan.

The CARES Act allowed employers to defer the deposit and payment of the employer's share of Social Security payroll taxes that would otherwise have been owed from the date of enactment of the legislation through December 31, 2020. The legislation requires that the deferred taxes be paid over a two-year period, with half the amount required to be paid by December 31, 2021,
45


and the other half by December 31, 2022. As of December 31, 2020, we have recorded the payment deferral within “Accrued compensation and benefits” and “Other long-term liabilities” on the balance sheet.

Cash Flows

The following table summarizes our cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018 (in thousands):
 Year Ended December 31,
202020192018
Net cash provided by operating activities$39,555 $19,641 $15,822 
Net cash used in investing activities(5,692)(7,185)(9,917)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(24,549)(7,644)2,536 
Effect of foreign currency exchange rates on cash and cash equivalents1,748 (331)(780)
Net increase in cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash$11,062 $4,481 $7,661 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities

Cash provided by operating activities aggregated $39.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2020. The improvement compared to prior years was primarily attributable to lower operating expenses as the result of our programs to increase operational efficiencies and reduce costs.

Cash Flows from Investing Activities

For the year ended December 31, 2020, the net cash flow used in investing activities reflected $5.7 million used for the purchase of property and equipment. Our purchases of property and equipment largely consist of computer hardware and software to support R&D activities, and leasehold improvements.

Cash Flows from Financing Activities

For the year ended December 31, 2020, net cash flows used in financing activities were primarily the result of the repayment of our Notes, partially offset by borrowings under the PPP loan.

CONTRACTUAL AND COMMERCIAL OBLIGATIONS

The following table outlines our contractual payment obligations as of December 31, 2020 (in thousands):
 
 
Total
Less than
1 Year
 
1 – 3 Years
 
3 – 5 Years
After
5 Years
Term Loan201,208 4,781 196,427 — — 
PPP Loan7,800 — 7,800 — — 
Other long-term debt1,271 160 356 409 346 
Operating leases44,684 8,558 13,454 10,896 11,776 
Unconditional purchase obligations8,971 8,971 — — — 
 $263,934 $22,470 $218,037 $11,305 $12,122 
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Other contractual arrangements that may result in cash payments consisted of the following at December 31, 2020 (in thousands):
 
 
Total
Less than
1 Year
 
1 – 3 Years
 
3 – 5 Years
After
5 Years
Stand-by letters of credit3,698 850 1,949 — 899 
 $3,698 $850 $1,949 $— $899 
As described above, all outstanding borrowings under the Financing Agreement were repaid in January 2021, in connection with the termination of the Financing Agreement and the entry into the Credit Agreement.

Any portion of the PPP Loan that is not forgiven, must be repaid by May 2022. See more details in Note Q, Long-Term Debt and Credit Agreement, to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

We entered into a long-term agreement to purchase a variety of information technology solutions from a third party in the second quarter of 2020, which included an unconditional commitment to purchase a minimum of $32.2 million of products and services over the initial five years of the agreement. We have purchased $3.0 million of products and services pursuant to this agreement as of December 31, 2020.

We have letters of credit that are used as security deposits in connection with our leased Burlington, Massachusetts headquarters office space. In the event of default on the underlying leases, the landlords would, at December 31, 2020, be eligible to draw against the letters of credit to a maximum of $1.3 million in the aggregate. The letters of credit are subject to aggregate reductions provided that we are not in default of the underlying leases and meet certain financial performance conditions. In no case will the letters of credit amounts for the Burlington leases be reduced to below $1.2 million in the aggregate throughout the lease periods.

In addition, we have letters of credit in connection with security deposits for other facility leases totaling $0.6 million in the aggregate, as well as letters of credit totaling $1.9 million that otherwise support our ongoing operations. These letters of credit have various terms and expire during 2021 and beyond, while some of the letters of credit may automatically renew based on the terms of the underlying agreements.


OFF-BALANCE SHEET ARRANGEMENTS

We do not engage in off-balance sheet financing arrangements or have any variable-interest entities. At December 31, 2020, we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements as defined in Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of Regulation S-K.


RECENT ACCOUNTING PRONOUNCEMENTS

Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncement


See Note B, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for a description of recently adopted accounting standards.

Recently Accounting Pronouncement to be Adopted

See Note B, Summary of Significant Accounting Policies, to our Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of the Form 10-K for a description of certain issued accounting standards that have not been adopted and may impact our financial statements in future reporting periods.

ITEM 7A.QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURE ABOUT MARKET RISK

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Foreign Currency Exchange Risk

We have significant international operations and derive more than half of our revenues from customers outside the United States. This business is, for the most part, transacted through international subsidiaries and generally in the currency of the end-user customers. Therefore, we are exposed to the changes in foreign currency exchange rates that could adversely affect our revenues, net income and cash flow.

For the year ended December 31, 2020, 2019, and 2018, we recorded net losses of $0.4 million, $0.6 million, and $0.5 million, respectively, that resulted from foreign currency denominated transactions and the revaluation of foreign currency denominated assets and liabilities.

A hypothetical change of 10% in appreciation or depreciation of foreign currency exchange rates from the quoted foreign currency exchange rates as of December 31, 2020, would not have a significant impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Interest Rate Risk

We borrowed $100.0 million under the Term Loan on February 26, 2016, and an additional $15.0 million and $22.7 million under the Term Loan on November 9, 2017 and May 10, 2018, respectively. Until January 5, 2021, we also maintained a revolving Credit Facility that allowed us to borrow up to $22.5 million. On April 8, 2019, we entered into an amendment to the Financing Agreement, which provided for an additional delayed draw term loan commitment in the aggregate principal amount of $100.0 million, or the Delayed Draw Funds. Under the terms of the amendment effective May 19, 2020, interest accrued on the Delayed Draw Funds, outstanding borrowings under the Term Loan and the Credit Facility at a rate of either the LIBOR Rate (as defined in the Financing Agreement) plus 6.75% or a Reference Rate (as defined in the Financing Agreement) plus 5.75%, at our option. A hypothetical 10% increase or decrease in interest rates paid on outstanding borrowings under the Financing Agreement would not have had a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. As described above, all outstanding borrowings under the Financing Agreement were repaid in January 2021, in connection with the termination of the Financing Agreement and the entry into the Credit Agreement.

On June 15, 2015, we issued $125.0 million aggregate principal amount of our Notes pursuant to the terms of an indenture. We purchased $2.0 million of the Notes during 2017, $16.2 million during 2018, $3.9 million on January 22, 2019, and an additional $74.0 million through a cash tender offer on May 13, 2019. Interest accrued on the Notes at an annual rate of 2.00%, payable semi-annually on June 15 and December 15 of each year. On June 15, 2020, the maturity date of the Notes, we fully paid the outstanding principal and unpaid interest on the Notes.

Under the Credit Agreement entered into on January 5, 2021, interest accrues on outstanding borrowings at a rate of the Adjusted LIBO Rate, the Adjusted EURIBO Rate or the Alternate Base Rate (each as defined in the Credit Agreement), at the option of the Company, plus a spread of 2.00% to 3.25% for Adjusted LIBO Rate and Adjusted EURIBO Rate loans, with a 0.25% LIBOR floor, and 1.00% to 2.25% for Alternate Base Rate loans, in each case depending on our leverage ratio. A hypothetical 10% increase or decrease in interest rates paid on outstanding borrowings under the Credit Agreement would not have had a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.



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ITEM 8.FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCIAL INFORMATION

AVID TECHNOLOGY, INC.

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT SCHEDULE
 Page
CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS INCLUDED IN ITEM 8: 
  
  
  
  
  
  
  

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

Stockholders and Board of Directors
Avid Technology, Inc.
Burlington, Massachusetts

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Avid Technology, Inc. and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss), stockholders’ deficit, and cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company at December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

We also have audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (“COSO”) and our report dated March 9, 2021 expressed an unqualified opinion thereon.

Change in Accounting Principle

As discussed in Note H to the consolidated financial statements, on January 1, 2019, the Company changed its method of accounting for leases due to the adoption of ASU 2016-02, Leases (ASC 842) using the modified retrospective transition approach, as provided by ASU No. 2018-11, Leases - Targeted Improvements.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

Critical Audit Matter

The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current period audit of the consolidated financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that: (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the consolidated financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matter does not alter in any way our opinion on the consolidated financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing separate opinions on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.

Revenue Recognition – Enterprise Agreements

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As described in Note P, the Company, from time to time, enters into enterprise agreements whereby the customer agrees to purchase specified products and services over an extended period of time, often for a single fixed contractual price. For such agreements, management identifies each performance obligation in the contract and allocates the total contract price to each performance obligation based on relative estimated stand-alone selling price. Once the transaction price is allocated to the individual performance obligations, the components are recognized in the respective categories of revenue consistent with the timing of the recognition of the Company’s identified performance obligations described in Note P.

We identified the process of the determination of performance obligations and the related stand-alone selling price for each performance obligation present in these enterprise agreements as a critical audit matter. Auditing these transactions was especially challenging and complex due to the effort required to identify the substantial number of varying performance obligations present in each agreement, and assess the related estimated stand-alone selling price and transaction price allocation.

The primary procedures we performed to address this critical audit matter included:

Evaluating the design of and testing the operating effectiveness of certain controls related to management's identification, assessment, and review of distinct performance obligations, including the related stand-alone selling price, within enterprise agreements.

Evaluating management’s accounting policies and practices, including the reasonableness of management’s judgments and assumptions related to: (i) the identification of each performance obligation and its pattern of delivery, and (ii) determination of the stand-alone selling price of each performance obligation identified and related transaction price allocation.

Testing a sample of enterprise agreements together with their underlying order documents to evaluate: (i) the appropriate identification of each distinct performance obligation and its respective pattern of revenue recognition, and (ii) the appropriate determination of the stand-alone selling price.

/s/ BDO USA, LLP

We have served as the Company's auditor since 2016.

Boston, Massachusetts
March 9, 2021



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AVID TECHNOLOGY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(in thousands, except per share data)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Net revenues:   
Products$140,762 $207,445 $205,107 
Services219,704 204,343 208,175 
Total net revenues360,466 411,788 413,282 
Cost of revenues:   
Products84,222 109,799 110,758 
Services47,924 49,176 55,560 
Amortization of intangible assets 3,738 7,800 
Total cost of revenues132,146 162,713 174,118 
Gross profit228,320 249,075 239,164 
Operating expenses:   
Research and development57,018 62,343 62,379 
Marketing and selling87,637 99,944 101,273 
General and administrative47,052 53,362 55,230 
Amortization of intangible assets 694 1,450 
Restructuring costs, net5,046 629 5,148 
Total operating expenses196,753 216,972 225,480 
Operating income31,567 32,103 13,684 
Interest income70 36 195 
Interest expense(20,071)(26,712)(23,474)
Other income (loss), net868 (2,902)192 
Income (loss) before income taxes12,434 2,525 (9,403)
Provision for (benefit from) income taxes1,372 (5,076)1,271 
Net income (loss)$11,062 $7,601 $(10,674)
Net income (loss) per common share – basic$0.25 $0.18 $(0.26)
Net income (loss) per common share – diluted$0.25 $0.17 $(0.26)
Weighted-average common shares outstanding – basic43,822 42,649 41,662 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding – diluted44,878 43,495 41,662 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of the consolidated financial statements.
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AVID TECHNOLOGY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME (LOSS)
(in thousands)
 Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Net income (loss)$11,062 $7,601 $(10,674)
Other comprehensive (loss) income:
    Foreign currency translation adjustments2,253 (163)<